Mağara rəsmləri

67

Altamira  mağarası

Altamira (isp. Cueva de Altamira) – İspaniyada Üst paleolit dövrünə aid mağara kompleksi. Mağaranın daxili uzunluğu 296 metrdir. Mağara 1879-ci ildə kəşf edilmişdir. İlk dəfə mağaranı və ətraf əraziləri 1876 və 1879-cu illərdə ispan arxeoloqu M.Sautuola tərəfindən tətqiq edilmişdir. Mağaranın divarlarında müxtəlif rəngli boyalarla çəkilmiş, həmçinin oyma üsulu ilə həkk olunmuş çoxsaylı heyvan təsvirləri vardır. Salonlardan birinin tavanında çəkilmiş yarıminsan-yarımheyvan təsvirlərinin maskalanmış cadugərlər olduğu ehtimal edilir. Altamiradakı təsvirlər və müxtəlif rəsmlər Madlen mədəniyyətinə aiddir. Altamirada təsvirlərin kəşf edilməsi ilə Paleolit dövrü incəsənətinin öyrənilməsinin başlanğıcı qoyulmuşdur. Bu rəsmlərin bir qismi Madrid Milli Arxeologiya Muzeyində və Santander şəhərindəki qədim tarix və arxeologiya müzeyində saxlanılır. Mağaranın girəcəyində və divarlarının yaxınlığında yemək qalıqları, daş əmək alətləri, onların altında isə Solütre və Erkən Madlen mədəniyyətlərinə aid mədəni təbəqə aşkar edilmişdir. Ümumdünya irsi siyahısına daxil edilən Altamira mağara kompleksi, Avropada ilk insan məskənlərindən hesab edilir.

Laskou mağarası

Laskou mağarası (fr. Grotte de Lascaux) — Fransada sayına, keyfiyyətinə və saxlanma dərəcəsinə görə ən vacib paleolit abidələrindən biri. Mağaranı “ibtidai icma quruluşunun Sikstin kapellası” (bax:Sikstin kapellası) da adlandırırlar. Orada olan rəsm və qravürlərin dəqiq yaranma tarixi yoxdur, onun təqribən eramızdan 18-15 əsr əvvəl yarandığını ehtimal edirlər. Əvvəllər onun qədim Madlen mədəniyyətinə aid olduğunu güman edirdilər. Sonradan aparılan tədqiqatlar nəticəsində onun daha erkən Solyutr mədəniyyətinə aid olduğu təsdiq edilmişdir.

 

Kombarel mağarası

Kombarel mağarası Fransanın Dordon departamenti Le-Ezi-de-Tayak-Sirey ərazisində yerləşir. Uzunluğu 237 metr olan mağarada 1901-ci ildə 400-dən çox mamont, şir, maral, at və digər heyvanların təsvirləri aşkar olunub. Üst paleolit dövrünə aiddir.

 

Trua-Frer mağarası

Trua-Frer (Üç qardaş) mağarası Fransanın cənub-qərbində Aryej departamentində yerləşir. Mağarada olan rəsmlər e.ə. 13000 ilə aid edilir.

Şove mağarası

Şove mağarası Fransanın cənubunda, Ardeş çayı vadisində  yerləşir, 1994-cü il 18 dekabrda təsadüf nəticəsində aşkar edilib. Mağarada 435-dən çox heyvan rəsmi müəyyən edilib. Şove mağarası öz rəsmlərinə görə dünyada ən qədimi hesab olunur. Orada ən qədim təsvirin 36 min il yaşı var, bu da Orinyak mədəniyyətinə aiddir. İnsanın və itlərin mövcud olması barədə ilk təsvirlərə də bu mağarada rast gəlinib, belə ki, it və ya canavarın pəncə izi və uşağın ayağının təsviri burada əks olunub. 2010-cu ildə abidə haqqında “Unudulmuş yuxuların mağarası” adlı sənədli film çəkilib.

Müəllif: arxeoloq Aida İsmayılova

Redaktə etdi:Ziya Mehdiyev

67 ŞƏRH

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