Niyə 4 qan qrupumuz var?

83

Niyə 4 qan qrupumuzun olmasından doğan sual özlüyündə həm maraqlı,həm də əhəmiyyətli sualdır. Ona görə də bu mövzuda düşünməyə dəyər. İlk öncə bəzi şeyləri xatırlatmaqda fayda var. Məsələn, insanların çoxu heyvanlarda qan qrupunun olduğunu öyrənəndə təəccüblənirlər,amma bu reallıqdır. Ən  əsası bilmək lazımdır ki,qan köçürmələr ilk dəfə heyvanlar üzərində tətbiq olunub. Bu prosesdə əsas rolu itlər daşıyır ki, onlar qan köçürmələrinə insanlardan fərqli reaksiya verirlər. Qan köçürmələrinə ilk dəfə olaraq 17-ci əsrlərdə başlandı və adətən ölümlə nəticələndi. Belə ki,insanlarda yanlış qan köçürmə zamanı ölümcül reaksiyalar olsa da, itlərdə bu cür ani reaksiyalara təsadüf olunmur. Onlar daha gec müddətdə(4-14 gün) cavab verirlər.

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Heyvanlarda qan qrupunun sayı və faktorları (insandakı rezus faktor kimi) olduqca müxtəlif saydadır. Belə ki, atlarda 19, qoyunlarda 6, toyuqlarda 7,pişiklərdə 3, itlərdə isə 13 qan qrupu vardır.
Əsas məsələyə keçək.
İnsandakı əlamətlərin hər biri öz əksini DNT-dəki kodlarda tapır. Bu kodlar isə DNT lokuslarında yerləşən genlərdir. Aşağıdakı şəkildə(ŞƏKİL 1- 1-ci xromosomun regional xəritəsi) lokuslarda yerləşən genlər göstərilib.

 

Şəkil 1

1-ci xromosomda genlərin regional xəritəsi

İnsanın qan qruplarını müəyyən edən gen (İ- ABO)  9-cu xromosomda yerləşir. Məlumdur ki,insanda 4 qan qrupu mövcuddur. Qan qruplarının sayının 1-dən çox olmasının əsas səbəbi mutasiyalardır.Belə ki,xromosomların lokuslarında(gen sahələrində) hər lokusa 1 gen olmalıdır(Buna görə də vaxtilə 1 qan qrupuna malik fərdlərin yaşaması istisna edilmir). Lakin təkamül şəraitində gedən mutasiyalar lokuslardakı genlərə də
öz təsirini göstərib.  Mutasiya nəticəsində genlərin sayı dəyişsə də,yerləşdiyi lokus dəyişməz olaraq qalıb,eyni genin allelləri əmələ gəlib. İnsanda da İ geninin mutasiyası nəticəsində A,B,0 allel genləri(eyni əlamətin(qan qrupunun) müxtəlif genləri) əmələ gəlib(mutasiyalar ancaq zərərli olur deyənlər qan qruplarının əmələ gəlməsini necə izah edirlər maraqlıdır). Bəs sual olunsa ki,niyə 3  allel gen 4 qan qrupunun yaranmasına səbəb olur? Bunu genetikadan anlayışı olan hər kəs bilir ki,allel genlər eyni əlaməti müəyyən etdiyinə görə qarşılıqlı təsirdə olurlar. Qarşılıqlı təsir nəticəsində 0 genini daşıyanlar 1-ci qan qrupu, AA,A0 genlərini daşıyanlar 2-ci qan qrupu, BB,BO genlərini daşıyanlar 3-cü qan qrupu, AB genini daşıyanlar 4-cü qan qrupuna malikdir(şəkil 2). Gördüyünüz kimi 4-cü qan qrupunun təyin edən xüsusi gen yoxdur,bu əlamət 2 A və B allel genlərinin təsirindən yaranır.160114165453_blood_types1

-BƏS DOĞULACAQ UŞAĞIN QAN QRUPU ÖNCƏDƏN NECƏ TƏYİN OLUNUR?

Bu çox sadə genetika məsələsidir. Deyək ki, Cəmilin(xəyali şəxs) valideynlərinin hər biri 1-ci qan qrupudur. O zaman biz Cəmildən qan qrupunu soruşmadan deyirik ki,o 1-ci qan qrupudur. Cəmil əgər bizdən öz gələcək uşağının qan qrupunu soruşsa, biz onun sevgilisin valideynlərinin qan qrupunu bilməliyik. Deyək ki,xanımın valideynləri 2-ci qrupdur. Onların 2-ci qrup olmasına əsasən deyə bilmirik ki,Cəmilin sevgilisi də 2-ci qan qrupudur. Çünki 2-ci qan qruplarının övladları birinci qan qrupu da ola bilər. O zaman Cəmilin gələcək övladının qan qrupunu bilmək üçün mütləq xanımın da qan qrupunu bilməliyik. Öncədən təxmin edə bilirik ki, xanım ya 1ci (00),ya da ikinci(AA,AO) qan qrupudur. Xanım 1-ci qan qrupu olsa, əminliklə deyə bilərik ki,onların uşaqları 1-ci qan qrupudur. Əgər 2-ci qan qrupu olsa , o zaman artan ehtimalları aradan çıxarmaq üçün xanımın nəsil şəcərəsinin qan qrupunu öyrənməli oluruq.

şəkil1- C.Nəcəfov. Tibbi biologiya və genetika

Mənbə:pethayat.com

Tibbi biologiya və genetika. C.Nəcəfov

BBC FUTURE

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