Xərçəng xəstəliyi və yaranma səbəbləri.

96

Xərçəng 21-ci əsrin ən böyük problemi hesab edilir. NTV-nin araşdırmasına görə hər il 12 milyon insan xəstəliyə tutulur və onlardan 7 milyonu ölür. İl ərzində 50-60 milyon arasında insanın öldüyünü nəzərə alsaq,bu rəqəm çox ciddi bir rəqəm olur. Xəstəlik ciddi bir ölüm təhlükəsi olduğuna görə də durmadan bu haqda yazılır. Təəssüflər olsun ki, bir çox hallarda insanlara yanlış məlumat çatdırılır. Bu məqalə isə tamamilə elmi mənbələrə istinad edəcək.

Xərçəng xəstəliyi (cancer) hüceyrənin böyüməsi, hüceyrənin mitozunu kontrol edən genlərin mutasiyası və ya anormal aktivliyi nəticəsində ortaya çıxır. Bu “anormal” genlərə onkogen adı verilib. 100 -dən çox belə gen kəşf olunub. Aşağıdakı cədvəldə onlardan bəzilərini sizlərə təqdim edirik.

onkogen-amplifikasyonlari-v1

Orqanizmdə xərçəngə səbəb olan genlərin olması özü ilə belə bir sual yaradır:o zaman niyə hər kəs bu xəstəliyə tutulmur? Onkogenlərin aktivliyini antionkogenlər tənzimləyir. Elə məsələdə antionkogenlərin inaktiv olması və ya yox olmasından sonra başlayır. Çünki onkogenlərin qarşısını alan olmur.

Mutasiyaya uğramış bütün hüceyrələr xərçəng yaradır?

Xeyr,onların bir qismi səbəb olar. Bunun aşağıdakı səbəbləri vardır.

1.Mutasiyaya məruz qalan hüceyrələrin böyük bir hissəsi ölür.

2. Bir qismi orqanizm tərəfindən(limfositlər və s.) məhv edilir. Yəni loru dildə desək,immunitetiniz güclüdürsə,xərçəngə tutulma ehtimallarınız azalır.

3.Mutant hüceyrədə eyni anda bir neçə onkogenin aktiv olması vacibdir.

nukleik_asitler-2_replikasyon_13_nokta_mutasyonlari

 

Genlərin mutasiyaya uğramasının səbəbi nədir?

İnsanda  trilyonlarla hüceyrənin yaranıb öldüyünü düşünsək, hər bir insanın xərçəngə tutulma ehtimalının çox olduğunu görərik. Əslində orqanizmimiz özü bunun qabağına keçir. Yaşamı boyunca bir insanda neçə trilyon dəfə DNT-nin ikiləşməsini xəyal belə edə bilmirəm,amma orqanizm hər DNT ikiləşdikdən sonra mutasiyaya səbəb olacaq xətaları düzəldir. Yəni xərçəngin yaranması orqanizmin buraxdığı bir səhvdir,şanssızlıqdır. Bu qeyd etdilənlər mutasiyanın təbii səbəbləridir, bir də müasir xarici mühit amilləri var ki,onlardan da söz açılacaq.

Xərçəng xəstəliyi nə qədər müddətdir var?

Əslində xərçəng xəstəliyi yaşlı insanların iddia etdiyi kimi əvvəllər rast gəlinməyən, son zamanlar yaranan xəstəlik deyil. Fizikist yazır ki, bu 1.7 milyon il əvvələ məxsus insan qalığında aşkar edilib.
Aşkarlanan hüceyrə qalıqları ayaq barmağında osteosarkom adlanan ölümcül sümük xərçənginə məxsus olub. Tədqiqatçı Edward Odes bildirib ki,araşdırmalara görə xərçəng xəstəliyi modern həyatla bağlı deyil,insanın özü ilə həmyaşıddır (yuxarıda qeyd etdiyim mutasiya yaradan təbii səbəblərə görə) . Yəni insan tarixən həmişə xərçənglə mübarizə aparıb. Lakin heç vaxt bu qədər təsadüf olunan xəstəlik olmayıb. Deməli,modern həyatın burada rolu var.

Müasir həyatımız xərçəngin yaranmasında nə qədər rol oynayır?

Bu qədər çox təsadüf olunması məhz müasir dünya ilə bağlıdır. Xüsusilə istifadə olunan kimyəvi,bioloji və fiziki maddələr birbaşa səbəbkarlardır. Aşağıda bəziləri göstərilmişdir.

  1. ŞÜALAR:Rentgen şüaları , qamma şüaları , radioaktiv maddələrdən yayılan radioaktiv parçacıqlar(partiküllər) və hətta ultrabənövşəyi şüalar kimi ionlaşdırıcı təsirə malik şüalar da xərçəngə səbəb ola bilir. Bu şüalar nəticəsində əmələ gələn ionlar DNT spiralını qoparıb mutasiyaya səbəb olur.
  2. KİMYƏVİ MADDƏLƏR: Xərçəngə səbəb olan kimyəvi maddələrə karsinogen maddələr deyilir. Bunlardan ən çox bilinəni anilin boyaları və növləridir ki,istehsalat fabriklərində işləyən işçilər arasında xərçəngə tutulma ehtimalı olduqca çoxdur. Karsinogenlərin bir çoxuna siqaret tüstüsündə də rast gəlinir.
  3. QİDA MADDƏLƏRİ:Tərkibində orqanizmə qıcıqlandırıcı ( allergik) təsir göstərən irritant maddələrin olduğu qida maddələri həzm sistemini uzun müddətli qıcıqlandırıcı təsir göstərdikdə xərçəngə səbəb olur.
  4. İRSİYYƏT:Bəzi ailələrdə xərçəngə irsi meylin olduğu müşahidə olunur. Bunun da səbəbi yuxarıda qeyd edildiyi kimi bir yox,bir neçə onkogenin eyni anda aktivləşməsidir. Belə onkogenlər də nəsildən-nəsilə ötürülür.
  5. VİRUSLAR:Laborator şəraitdə viruslarla heyvanlarda xərçəng yaradılmışdır. Viruslar iki cür olduğundan,səbəblər də 2 cür olur. DNT tərkibli viruslar birbaşa xromosoma təsir edərək mutasiya yarada bilir. RNT tərkiblilər isə tərs transkripsiya ( DNT-dən RNT yaranması) zamanı üzünü çıxarılmada olan xətadan xərçəng yaratmış olurlar.

Bədxassəli və xoşxassəli xərçəng hüceyrələri arasında nə fərq var?

Xoşxassəli dediyimiz hüceyrələrin böyüməsi sərhədlidir və bədənə yayılmazlar. Bu hüceyrələrə rast gəlinən adam xərçəng xəstəsi deyil.

“Metastaz” dedikləri xərçəng hüceyrələrinin bədənə yayılması nədir?

Bunun 3 səbəbi var.

  1. Xərçəng hüceyrələri normal böyümə sərhəddini aşarlar
  2. Xərçəng hüceyrələri normal hüceyrələrdən fərqli olaraq bir-birinə az təmas edərlər. Bu da normal hüceyrələrdə hüceyrəarası maddələrin olmasından irəli gəlir. Bir-birinə az təmas edən hüceyrələr bədəndə rahat hərəkət edə bilirlər.
  3. Xərçəng hüceyrələri xüsusi maddələr (angiogenic factors) sintez edir ki, bunlar da xərçəng hüceyrələri arasında qidalandırıcı damarların yaranmasına səbəb olur.

4

Xərçəng hüceyrələri ən çox hansı orqanlarda olur?

Beyin və onurğa beyin 1%

Cinsiyyət orqanları kişilərdə  20%,qadınlarda 8%

Dəri 10%

Süd vəzi 14%

Həzm  sistemi 25%

Ağciyər və tənəffüs yolları kişilərdə 2 %, qadınlarda 3 %

Qaraciyər və öd kisəsi 3%

Digər orqanlar 8%

Xərçəng hüceyrələri niyə öldürür?

Çox sadə bir cavab ; orqanizmdəki qida maddələri uğrunda normal hüceyrələr və xərçəng hüceyrələri rəqabətə girir və bu rəqabətin nəticəsi olaraq insan ölür.

 

Mənbələr: ARTHUR C.GUYTON. JOHN E.HALL PHYSIOLOGY 2006.

FEDİER A. FİNK D:MUTATİONS İN DNA MİSMATCH REPAİR GENES

LEWIN B:GENES IV.OXFORD UNİVERSİTY,2000

ŞƏKİL: http://www.kansergenetigi.com/tr/kanser-ve-genetik-onkogenler

 

 

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