Hisslərin qarışması; Sinesteziya

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“Balqabağın dadı çəhrayı, pomidorun dadı yaşıldır. İspanağın dadı sarı olduğu üçün onu sevmirəm.” -Josh Klaf nadir görülən sinir sistemi xəstəliyi Sinesteziyadan əziyyət çəkir. Sinesteziya-hisslərin birbirinə qarışdığı nevrolojik bir vəziyyətdir. Sinestezi xəstələri rəngləri eşidir, səsləri görür, toxunuşu dada bilir. Günümüzdə xəstəliyin 20-dən çox növünə rast gəlinir. Bu xəstələrin yarısında eyni zamanda 2 və daha artıq növ müşahidə edilmişdir. Məsələn, yuxarıda qeyd etdiyimiz Josh Klaf rəngləri musiqi olaraq,dadları isə rəng olaraq hiss edir.

Richard Feynman, What Do You Care What Other People Think? Adlı kitabında “bir cümləyə baxdıqda səbəbini bilmirəm amma hərfləri rəngli görürəm- j-ləri açıq qəhvəyi, n-ləri mavi rəngdə” Burdan Feynmanın sinestetik olduğunu anlıyırıq

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Smith Power kor olmağına baxmayaraq, müəyyən sözləri eşitdikdə rənglər görür.Onun bu xüsusiyyəti alimləri maraqlandırır və Oxford Universitetindən Megan Stiwen Smithin beyninin emarını çəkib araşdırır. O, Smithə müxtəlif sözlər deyir və onun beynində eyni zamanda səs (gicgah) və rəng (ənsə) paylarında işıq yandığını (neyronlarda impulslar elektrik vasitəsilə ötürülür və burada bu işi ara neyronlar həyata keçirir) müşahidə edir.

Journal of Neuroscience’ta paylaşılan bir məqalədə 12 sinestetik və 12 sinestetik olmayan insanların, beyinləri ayıq olduğu anda MRT çəkirlər. Təcrübənin nəticəsində sinestetik insanların beyinlərindəki əlaqələrin sinestetik olmayanlardan daha güclü olduğu anlaşılır. Belə ki, bu insanlarda görmə nahiyyəsi (ən əsas da rənglə bağlı hissə) eşitmə nahiyyəsi ilə güclə əlaqədədir. Buna görə də bir rəqəm eşidildikdə buna müvafiq insanın zehnində rəng canlanır.

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Son zamanlar sinesteziyanın bədənin fiziologiyası ilə əlaqəli olduğu və sinesteziyanın zərərdən çox xeyrinin olduğu sübut edildi. Daha çox genetik olduğu düşünülsə də bəzən mühiti olduğu da anlaşılmışdır. Həmçinin sinestezinin Multiple Skleroz, İltihabi Bağırsaq Sindromu, bəzi növ baş ağrısı kimi xəstəliklərlə əlaqəsi olduğu müşahidə edilib.

Həmçinin, təcrübələr nəticəsində sinestetik insanların yaddaşının daha güclü olduğu müşahidə edilib. Bunu belə izah edim; bir insanın adını xatırlamağa çalışırıq, Əhməd idi yoxsa Mustafa?  Sinestetik biri kimi düşünsək- ə hərfini mavi m hərfini qırmızı olaraq anlasaydıq, rəng yaddaşı ilə adı xatrlamaq daha tez olardı.

Sinesteziya haqqında hər gün yeni bir şey öyrənilir. Tam məlumatları əldə edi bilmirik, çünki bu xəstəlik insan yuxusu kimi şəxsi və zehində olan bir prosesdir.

Alimlər bu xəstəliyin səbəblərini hələ də araşdırmağa davam edirlər.Xəstəliyin yaranmasının bir çox səbəbi var:

1. Əslində hər birimiz Sinestezi xəstəsi olaraq dünyaya gəlirik. Beləki, insan doğularkən beyindəki şöbələr birbiri ilə əlaqəli olur və zaman keçdikcə bu əlaqə itir. Lakin bəzən bu əlaqələrin itməsinə səbəb olan gen mutasiyaya uğrayır və əlaqələr qismən itmir, bunun da nəticəsində Sinesteziya yaranır.

2. Bəzən beyində ağır travmalar nəticəsində də bu xəstəlik yaranır ki, buna da Sonradan Qazanılan Sinesteziya deyilir.

3. Genlə keçməsi. Maraqlısı budurki, xəstəlik X xromosomu üzərində daşınır. Buna görə də bu xəstəlik kişilərdən çox qadınlarda müşahidə edilmişdir. Beləki, xəstəlik anadan oğula, anadan qıza, atadan qıza keçdiyi görülsə də, atadan oğula gen ilə keçdiyi heç bir zaman görülməmişdir.

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Sinesteziya şair, yazıçı, rəssam incəsənət adamlarında daha çox müşahidə edilir. Xəstələr daha çox solaxay olur, sol və sağlarını ayırmağı bacara bilmir, məntiqli və savadlı olsalar da asan hesablamaları bacara bilmirlər. Tanınan xəstələrin arasında ən məşhuru rəssam, təsviri incəsənət nəzəriyyəçisi, qrafika ustası və abstraktsionizmin banilərindən biri Wasilly Kandinsky-dir. Həkimlərə görə bu xəstəlik, Bəzi insanlara görə dəlilik, Xəstələrin özünə görə isə bu şans və xüsusi vergidir.

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Mənbə
Synaesthesia: The strangest thing. JE Harrison – 2001.
http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-identified-a-weirdly-common-form-of-synaesthesia
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/eyes-the-brain/201207/the-brain-synesthete
http://www.iflscience.com/brain/seeing-music-or-tasting-numbers-heres-what-we-can-learn-from-people-with-synaesthesia/

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61 ŞƏRH

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