Siqaretin faydaları varmı?

99

Hazırda bütün dünyada və ölkəmizdə insanlar tərəfindən geniş istifadə olunan siqaret ilk dəfə Amerika hinduları tərəfindən icad olundu. Amerikada yerli qəbilələr tütünü “Sülh Çubuğu” adlandırdıqları qamışa doldurub çəkirdilər. Hər şey böyük coğrafi kəşflər dövründə Avropalı səyyahların Şimali Amerikaya gedib yerli qəbilələrlə sülh çubuğunu istifadə etməsindən başladı…
1492-ci ildən əvvəl Amerika qitəsində yerli əhali tütünü müalicə və dini ayinlərin keçirilməsi üçün istifadə edirdilər. Xristofol Kolumb 1492-ci ildə Amerikanı kəşf etdi və Avropaya geri dönəndə özü ilə bu qitədə heç tanınmayan tütün toxumlarını və yarpaqlarını apardı.Belə bir söz var :”Ağ dərililər Amerikadakı yerlilərin hamısını məhv etdi,buna görə də onlar ağ dərililərdən hələ də intiqam alır.” Kolumbun yandaşlarından olan Rodrigo De Jeres bəlkə də tütün çəkən ilk ağ dərili idi, bu onda asılılıq yaratdı və ruhunun şeytan tərəfindən ələ keçirildiyi iddia edilərək həbs edildi.
Tütün sonradan bütün Avropaya sürətlə yayılmağa başladı. Avropada siqareti əsasən ziyalı təbəqə olan “aristokratlar” çəkirdi. Jean Nicot Fransada siqareti məhşurlaşdıran insan idi və “nikotin” sözü də onun adı ilə bağlıdır.Eyni işi İngiltərədə macərapərəst şair Sir Walter Raleigh etmişdir.
O dövr üçün siqaret çəkmək ziyalı təbəqədən olduğunu göstərməyin ən yaxşı üsulu idi. Tütün işi ilə məşğul olanlar üstlərindən siqaret iyi gəlməsin deyə “smoking jacket” adlı geyimlərdən istifadə edirdilər. Ziyalı təbəqədən olan kişilər ən önəmli məsələlərin müzakirə olunduğu yerlərə bu xarizmatik göstərən paltarda gedərdilər. Bu geyim sonradan bütün önəmli yerlərə geyilən bir geyimə döndü ,ancaq adı dəyişmədi: “Smokinq”.

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Siqaretə təlabat artdıqca siqaret istehsal edən dəzgahlar hazırlandı. İlk siqaret istehsal edən dəzgah 1881-ci ildə John Bonsack tərəfindən düzəldildi və bu dəzgah sayəsində gündə 120.000 siqaret istehsal olunurdu. Bu dəzgah 48 nəfərin gördüyü işi tək görürdü.
Siqaretin bu cür istifadəsini əlbəttə ki, hər kəs yaxşı qarşılamırdı.İlk dəfə siqaretə qadağa qoyanlardan biri Rus Çarı Aleksey olub. Cəza qanun pozuntusu təkrarlananda artırdı.Ən məhşur cəzalar qamçılamaq, burun kəsmək, Sibirə sürgün etmək kimi cəzalar idi. Tarixdə bu cür nümunələrlə çox rastlaşmaq olar , amma bu cəzalar siqaretin qarşısını ala bilmədi. Tütün II dünya müharibəsi zamanı daha da məhşurlaşdı və siqaret istehsalçıları böyük qazanclar əldə etdilər. II Dünya müharibəsinin məhşur bir şüarı var idi: “We need tobacco as much as bullet” , yəni “Gülləyə ehtiyacımız olduğu qədər tütünə də ehtiyacımız var.”
1943-cü ildə dünya əhalisinin 60-80% siqaret çəkirdi.Əlbəttə, bu təsadüf deyildi , çünki Amerika cizgi filmlərində uşaqlara şüuraltı mesajlar verərək gələcək müştərilərinə siqareti bir növ reklam edirdilər. 1950-ci illərdə hamımızın uşaqlıqda sevərək izlədiyi “Daş Dövrü” cizgi filmində “Winston” siqaret markasının reklamı oldu. Hamımızın uşaqlıq qəhramanı olan Red Kitin siqaret çəkməsi də təsadüf deyildi.Disney Channel bir çox cizgi filmlərində bu reklam kampaniyasını davam etdirdi.
Siqaret dumanında bol miqdarda və çox çeşidli zərərli maddələr mövcuddur.Elmi araşdırmalar nəticəsində 4000-dən çox zərərli və xərçəng yaradan (karsenogen) maddələr siqaretin tərkibində aşkarlanmışdır.Siqaretdə olan ən təhlükəli maddələr isə Karbonmonoksid,Nikotin və Qətrandır.
Nikotin:Çətənə,heroin və morfin kimi asılılıq yaradan özəlliyi var, sinir sisteminə təsir edir,ürək və damarların işləməsində problem yaradır,qan təziqini və nəbzi sürətləndirir.
Karbonmonoksid:El arasında dəm qazı kimi tanınan bu qaz qan hüceyrələri ilə daimi birləşmə əmələ gətirir və eritrositlərin oksigen daşıma qabiliyətini azaldır.
Qətran:Tünd qəhvəyi qaraya yaxın rəngdədir və xərçəngə səbəb olur.
Siqaretin tərkibində olan zərərli maddələr aşağıdakılardır.
1. Ammonyak – Bu maddə nikotinin orqanizmdə yaxşı sorulmasını təmin edir. Ammonyakın gübrənin əsasını təşkil edən bir maddə olduğunu qeyd etməklə onun nə dərəcədə təhlükəli maddə olduğunu anlamaq mümkündür.
2. Arsen – bu maddə eyni zamanda tarlalarda siçanları öldürmək üçün istifadə olunur.
3. Kadmium – siqaretin filterində olan kadmium həmçinin mobil telefonların batareyasında istifadə olunur.
4. Formaldehid – siqaretin tüstüsünü təşkil edən bu maddədən eyni zamanda meyidləri mumyalayarkən istifadə olunur.
5. Aseton – daha çox qadınların dırnaqlarına çəkdikləri boyanı təmizləmək üçün istifadə edilir.
6. Propilen qlikol – nikotinin beyinə daha tez çatmasına zəmin yaradır. Siqaretə alışqanlıq hissi yaradır.
7. Terebantin – daha çox nanəli siqaretlərin tərkibinə vurulan bu maddə boyaların təmizlənməsində istifadə edilir.
8. Butan – siqaretin asan yanmasına kömək edir.
9. Benzen -zərərvericilərə qarşı hazırlanan preparatlarda və benzin yanacağında istifadə edilir.
10. Qurğuşun
11. Nikel
Siqaretin yaratdığı xəstəliklər aşağıdakılardır.
1.Ağciyər xərçəngi
2.Ağız və udlaq xərçəngi
3.Mədəaltı vəzi xərçəngi
4.Mədə xərçəngi
5.Öd kisəsi xərçəngi
6.On iki barmaq bağırsaq xərçəngi
7.Beyin iflici(yaddaş zəifliyi)
8.Asılılıq
9.İnfarkt
10.Yüksək təzyiq
11.Oynaq və bel ağrıları
12.Dərmanlara qarşı immunitet
13.Qastrit
14.Sonsuzluq
15.Uşaq düşükləri, doğum anomaliyaları
16.Osteoporoz(sümük əriməsi)
17.Cinsi zəiflik
18.Qan damar xəstəlikləri
19.KOAH xəstəliyi
20.Menopauzanın daha erkən yaşlarda baş verməsi
Əlbəttə, siqaretin istifadə edilməsinin tərəfdarı deyilik ,amma elmi araşdırmalar siqaretin bir-iki faydasının olduğunu da göstərir.
1.Parkinson xəstəliyi-edilən araşdırmalara görə siqaret çəkən insanlarda bu xəstəliyə tutulma ehtimalı 40% daha azdır.
2.Bağırsaq iltihabı
3.Altsheymer xəstəliyi
4.Konsentrasiya-insanlar üstündə aparılan təcrübələrdə siqaret çəkən insanların hər hansı siqaret çəkməyən insanlara nisbətən konsentrasiyalarının daha yüksək olduğunu müşahidə etmişlər.

99 ŞƏRH

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