Bəşəriyyətin ilhamı

Yunan mifologiyası kiməsə sadəcə nağıllar toplusu kimi görünsə də, dünya incəsənətinə və ümumilikdə bəşəriyyət tarixinə əvəzolunmaz, çox böyük təsir göstərmişdir. Əsrlər boyunca bir çox rəssam yunan əsatirlərindən ilhamlanıb bir çox şedevr yaratmışdır. Bundan başqa, miflərin antik yunan filosoflarının formalaşmasında rolu olmuş, yunan mifologiyasının təsirindən bir çox ədəbiyyat nümunələri yaradılmışdır.

Yunan mifologiyasının yaranma tarixi çox qədim olsa da, hazırki halına  təxminən e.ə. 2000-ci ildə keçmişdir. Homerin “İlliada”  və “Odissey”i, Hesiodun “Teoqoniya”sı və bir çox əsərlər ədəbiyyat nümunəsi olmaqla yanaşı, yunan mifologiyasının öyrənilmə mənbələrinə çevrilmişdir. Bunu da qeyd etmək lazımdır ki, yunan mifologiyasının inkişafı boyunca digər panteonlardan tanrılar götürülüb yunanlaşdırılmış, real insanların həyatı əsatirlərə qarışıb onları mifik qəhrəman obrazlarına çevirmişdir. Bundan sonra yazacaqlarım müxtəlif müəllif və mənbələrdə bəzən fərqli verilən miflərin ortaq bir versiyası olacaq.

Dünyanın yaranması.

Hesiodun  “Teoqoniya”sına görə, kainat yaranmazdan əvvəl Xaos var idi. Sonradan Geya, Tartar və Eros yarandılar. Geya Yer ilahəsi (ana yer), Tartar yerin dərinliklərində axirət kimi bir yer idi. Eros sevgi tanrısı idi, lakin sevgi dedikdə burada çoxumuzun başa düşdüyü sevgi yox, kainatı bürüyən, onun əsasını təşkil edən bir sevgi idi (kobud olaraq qravitasiya, cazibə ilə oxşada bilərsiniz) (sonrakı dövrlərdə Eros daha çox Afroditanın oğlu kimi tanınmağa başlandı və sevgi tanrısı sayıldı). Sonradan Xaosdan Gecə-Nükta və Zülmət-Ereb yaranmışdır. Gecə və Zülmət cütlüyündən, yəni Nükta və Erebdən (qeyd edim ki, Nükta qadındır) Efir və Hemera doğulur. Nə qədər qəribə olsa da, valideynlərinə oxşamayan Efir-havanın ən yüksək, şəffaf qatı, Hemera isə gündüz işığı tanrısı idi.
img_8109
“Kronun Uranı axtalaması” Corco Vazari, Jerardi Xristofano
Bundan sonra meydana göy, səma tanrısı Uran gəlir. Bəzi mənbələrdə Uran Xaos tərəfindən yaradılmış hesab olunur. ”Teoqoniya”da isə Uranı Geya yaradır. Uran sonsuz cinsi gücə, potensiyaya malik olur. Səma tanrısı Uran və Geyanın nigahından titanlar yaranır. Titanlar 6 bacı və 6 qardaş olurlar (bəzi müəlliflərə görə, onların sayı 5 və 7 kimi göstərilir). Uran öz uşaqları – titanlara nifrət edir və onları analarının bətnində (Geya – yer tanrısıdır, bunu yerdə gizlətmək kimi də başa düşmək olar) gizlədirdi. Geya titan qardaşlar arasında ən kiçiyindən – Krondan (Kronos) atasını öldürməyi xahiş edir. Hesioda görə Kron atasını axtalayır – onun cinsi orqanını kəsir. Sonsuz güclü potensiyaya malik Uranın yerə düşən qanından eriniyalar, nimfa və giqantlar əmələ gəlir. Dənizə düşən Uranın cinsi orqanı ətrafına köpük yığılır və Kipr adasına çatanda ondan sevgi ilahəsi Afrodita əmələ gəlir.
Veneranın doğulması.Sandro Botiçelli(Roma mifologiyasında Afroditanın adı Veneradır)
“Veneranın doğulması” . Sandro Botiçelli (Roma mifologiyasında Afroditanın adı Veneradır)
Bundan sonra Kron öz bacısı titanida bacılarından biri Reya ilə evlənir və onların nigahından Zevs, Aid, Poseydon qardaşları və Hestiya, Demetra, Hera bacıları doğulur. Kron qorxur ki, övladları ondan güclü olar və çevriliş edərlər, buna görə də, doğulan uşaqları yeyir. Lakin Reya Krona Zevs əvəzinə bələnmiş daş parçası verir, Zevsi isə Krit adasında mağarada gizlədir. Zevs böyüyür, öz bacı qardaşlarını atasının qarnından azad edir və atasına qarşı çıxır. 9 il sürən döyüşdə Zevsə sikloplar və 100 əli, 50 başı olan hekatonoxeyrlər kömək edirlər, onlar Kron və digər titanlara qalib gəlirlər və titanlar tartara (yeraltı dünya, cəhənnəm) göndərilirlər.
Saturn.Rubens(Roma mifologiyasında Kronosun adı Saturndur və şəkildə Kronos öz uşağını yeyir)
“Saturn”  Rubens (Roma mifologiyasında Kronosun adı Saturndur və şəkildə Kronos öz uşağını yeyir)

Beləliklə, üç qardaş dünyanı öz aralarında bölürlər. Zevs göylərdə, Poseydon dənizdə, Aid isə yeraltı dünyada hökmranlıq sürür. Titanların ardından Olimp dağında yaşayan tanrılarının dövrü gəlir. Olimp tanrıları arasında əsasən bunların adı qeyd olunur:

Kron və Reyanın uşaqlar – Kronidlər:
  •    Zevs – baş Olimp tanrısı, göy, ildırım tanrısı
  •    Hera – Zevsin bacısı və arvadı, nigah ilahəsi
  •    Poseydon – dəniz tanrısı
  •    Aid – ölülər çarlığının hökmdarı
  •    Demetra – əkinçilik və bərəkət ilahəsi
  •    Hestiya – ailə, ev sevgisini bəsləyən ilahə

Və Zevsin övladları (bəziləri Heradan olsa da, hamısı ondan deyil):

  • Afina – müdriklik, ədalət ilahəsi
  • Ares – müharibə tanrısı
  • Persefona – bahar ilahəsi, Aidin arvadı
  • Hefest – dəmirçilik tanrısı
  • Hermes – ticarət, hiyləgərlik, oğruluq tanrısı
  • Apollon – işıq, incəsənət,elm tanrısı
  • Artemida – ov, Yerdəki canlıların ilahəsi
  • Dionis – çaxır və şənlik tanrısı
Tanrıların şurası.Rafael Santi
“Tanrıların şurası” Rafael Santi

İnsanın yaranışı

Pandora.Tomas Kenninqton
“Pandora” Tomas Kenninqton

Titanların oğlu olan Prometeyin üç qardaşı: Epimetey, Atlant, Menetiy var idi. Sözü gedən mifdə başlıca qəhrəman Prometey (yun. öncədən düşünən) və qardaşı Epimeteydir (yun. sonradan düşünən). Tanrılar Prometeyə canlıları yaratmağı tapşırmış, o bütün qabiliyyətini heyvanlara sərf etmişdi. O, insanları gildən yaradır və Afina onlara nəfəs verir. İnsanlara yazığı gələn Prometey Hefestdən od oğurlayır və onu insanlara verir. Prometeyə cəza olaraq onu Qafqaz dağlarında bir qayaya bağlayır və hər dəfə Zevsin qartalı gəlib onu qaraciyərini didir (qeyd edim ki, qaraciyər yüksək regenerasiya qabiliyyətinə malikdir, 25%-i qaldıqda belə əvvəlki kütləsini bərpa edə bilər).

İnsanlara cəza olaraq yerə ilk qadın olan Pandora göndərilir, Prometeyin kiçik qardaşı Epimeteylə evlənir. Sonradan o, öyrənir ki, evdə Zevsin verdiyi bir mücrü var və o mücrünü açmaq olmaz. Öz marağını yatıra bilməyən Pandora mücrünü açır. Mücrünü açdıqda oradan yerə bütün bəlalar, xəstəliklər çıxır. Bəzi müəlliflərə görə, mücrünü bağladıqda, orada yalnız ümid qalır və insanlar ümiddən məhrum qalırlar.
 
Əsas mənbə: Hesiod-Teoqoniya
Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva (25.11.2017)

98 ŞƏRH

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