Qalileyin məhkəməsi. Axı dünya fırlanır…

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«Hər halda o fırlanır»: Qaliley deyib?

Qalileo Qaliley klassik mexanikanın və astronomiyada teleskop müşahidələrinin əsasını qoymuş italyan alimidir. Onun elmə verdiyi töhfələr haqqında çox danışmaq olar amma, geniş ictimaiyyət onu fizikaya, riyaziyyata aid dərin elmi əsərləri, ay səthindəki dağları, günəşdə ləkələri və s. kəşf etməsi ilə deyil, əslində heç vaxt işlətmədiyi bir ifadəsinə görə daha çox tanıyır. Elm dünyasında əfsanələşmiş bir ifadə…

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1633-cü ildə kilsə inkivizisiyası Qalileyi küfrdə ittiham etdi: “İki dünya sistemi haqqında dialoq” adlı əsərində alim bütün planetlərin, o cümlədən Yerin Günəş ətrafında fırlanmasına dair Kopernik nəzəriyyəsinin doğru olduğunu bildirmişdi. Belə fikirlərə isə 1616-cı ildən kilsə tərəfindən rəsmən qadağa qoyulmuşdu. Santa-Mariya sopra Minerva kilsəsində keçirilən məhkəmə iyunun 22-də hökm çıxardı. 70 yaşlı alimin fikirlərindən yazılı surətdə imtina etməsini nəzərə alan inkvizisiya ona uzunmüddətli həbs cəzası kəsdi. Rəvayətə görə, Qaliley öz məşhur ifadəsini məhz həmin vaxt işlədib: Hökmü diz üstündə dinləyib qalxdıqdan sonra bir ayağını yerə vuraraq «hər halda, o fırlanır!» deyib.

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Lakin maraqlı məqamlar bundan sonra başlayır. Qalileyin bu sözləri elə məhkəmədəcə inkivizitorların üzünə demək cəsarəti olsaydı, hər halda ömrünü 9 il sonra öz yatağında yox, ertəsi gün tonqalda başa vurardı, amma həmin an qoca alim yəqin ki, qəhrəman kimi ölmək barədə düşünmürdü, yarımçıq qalmış böyük işlərini başa çatdırmaq istəyirdi. Onu da qeyd edim ki, Qaliley klassik mexanikanın əsasını qoymuş əsərini də məhz ev şəraitində dustaqlıq keçirdiyi növbəti illərdə yekunlaşdırıb. Bundan sonra vəziyyət daha da qaranlıqlaşdı. Qalileyin vəfatından 4 il sonra dahi alimin dostu yepiskop Pikkolomininin sifarişi ilə görkəmli ispan rəssamı Murilyonun şagirdi onun portretini çəkib. Portretin çərçivəsinin altında çox maraqlı detal gizlədilib. Orada Yerin Günəş ətrafında fırlandığını göstərən astronomik eskizin fonunda «Eppur Si Muove!» (Hər halda o fırlanır) sözləri yazılıb. Sirrin üstünü sənətşünas Jül van Bell of Rul yalnız 1911-ci ildə açıb. Bunun kimin – portretin sifarişçisinin, yoxsa rəssamın öz təşəbbüsü ilə edildiyi bəlli deyil.

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Lakin sənətşünasların tapıntısı heç kimi təəccübləndirməyib. Çünki italyan jurnalisti Cüzeppe Baretti onları xeyli qabaqlamışdı. Qalileyin məhkəmə önündə inadkarlıqla «Hər halda o fırlanır» deməsi haqda rəvayəti 1757-ci ildə çıxmış “The Italian Library” kitabına daxil etmişdi. Barettinin bu informasiyanı haradan aldığı bilinmir, bəlkə də, o portretin sirrindən sənətşünaslardan əvvəl xəbər tutubmuş. Maraqlı fakt ondan ibarətdir ki, Qalileyin guya 1633-cü ildə dediyi sözü bizə ilk olaraq 124 il sonra yazılmış kitabın müəllifi “çatdırıb”. Hazırda bu ifadə sarsılmazlıq, qətiyyət, həqiqət uğrunda mübarizədə inadkarlıq simvoluna çevrilib. Qaliley də məhz belə adam olub: sözdə heliosentrizm ideyasından imtina etsə də, əsərlərində fikrindən dönməyib və elmin inkişafına böyük xidmət göstərib. Maraqlıdır ki, kilsə Qalileyə yalnız 1992-ci ildə papa II İohann Pavelin təşəbbüsü ilə bəraət qazandırıb. Vatikan dahi alimi təqib etməklə səhvə yol verdiyini boynuna alıb.

müəllif: Alik Alekberov

88 ŞƏRH

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