Manhettan Layihəsi-Kütləvi qırğın silahları.

92
“Hiroşima (soldakı) və Naqasaki(sağdakı) üzərində atom göbələyi.

Bir çoxları 1945-ci ildə SSRİ-nin Üçünü Reyxin Almaniyasını məğlub etməsi ilə İkinci Dünya Müharibəsini bitmiş hesab etsə də əslində İkinci Dünya Müharibəsi 1945-cı ildə Yaponiyanın ABŞ-a təslim olması ilə başa çatmışdı.Yapon kamikadzelərin Pörl Harbora hücumundan qəzəblənən ABŞ-ın Nüvə Silahları qarşısında aciz qalan Yaponiya öz məğlubiyyətini qəbul etməyə məcbur oldu.Məlumat üçün qeyd edək ki,bu müharibələrdə ilk Nüvə Silahından istifadə halı idi.
ABŞ-ın Yaponiyanın Hiroşima və Naqasaki şəhərlərinə atdığı bu Nüvə Silahları Manhettan Layihəsi çərçivəsində hazırlanmışdı.Formal adı Manhettan Mühəndisi Zonası (MMZ) olan bu layihə 1941-ci ildən 1946-cı illər aralığında general R.Gruvsun rəhbərliyi ilə ABŞ Hərbi Mühəndisləri Komandanlığının nəzarəti altında həyata keçirilmişdi.Elmi-tədqiqat işlərinə isə amerikan Robert Oppenheymer rəhbərlik etmişdir.Layihənin gedişi müddətində üç nüvə silahı əldə olunmuş (təxminən 1945-ci il) və sınaqdan keçirilmişdi.Plutonium ilə zənginləşdirilmiş bombaların sınaqları (Üç bombanın sınağı aparıldığı üçün bu sınağı “Üçlük Sınağı” da adlandırırlar) New Mexiko ştatının Alamagorado şəhərində aparılmışdır.Nüvə silahı əldə olunduqdan sonra – avqust ayının 6-da Amerika Hərbi Donanmasına məxsus “Enola Gay” adlı “B-29” təyyarəsinin pilotu Paul Tibbets uranla zənginləşdirilmiş “Little Boy”(Balaca oğlan) adlandırılan 5 tonluq bombanı Yaponiyanın Hiroşima şəhərinə atmışdı.Nəticədə əhərin 60 faizi partlayış nəticəsində tamamilə məhv olmuş, partlayış, yanğınlar və güclü şüa xəstəliyi nəticəsində 200 mindən çox insan həlak olmuşdu.Qeyd edək ki,təyyarəyə Enola Gay adı pilot Paul Tibbetsin anası Enola Qay Tibbetsin şərəfinə verilmişdi.

“Pol Tibbets uçuşdan öncə”
“Pol Tibbets uçuşdan öncə”

 

“Hiroşimaya atılan Little Boy bombasının maketi”
“Hiroşimaya atılan Little Boy bombasının maketi”
“Hiroşima bombalanmadan öncə”
“Hiroşima bombalanmadan öncə”
“Hiroşima atom partlayışından sonra”
“Hiroşima atom partlayışından sonra”

3 ögün sonra -ayın 9-da isə plutoniumla zənginləşdirilmiş “Kök” (Fatman) adlandırılan bomba Naqasaki şəhərinə atılmış və minlərlə insanın dünyasını dəyişməsinə səbəb olmuşdu.İkinci hədəf olaraq Kokura şəhəri seçilsə də hava şəraitinə görə bomba Naqasakiyə atılmışdı.Təyyarənin komandiri Çarlz Suini idi.Naqasakidə həlak olanların sayı isə təxminən 80 min nəfər olmuşdu.

“Naqasakiyə atılan Fatman bombasının maketi”
“Naqasakiyə atılan Fatman bombasının maketi”
“Hiroşima (soldakı) və Naqasaki(sağdakı) üzərində atom göbələyi.
“Hiroşima (soldakı) və Naqasaki(sağdakı) üzərində atom göbələyi.

 

Yaponiyaya ABŞ-ın atom bombaları şoku Yaponiyanın baş naziri Kantaro Sudzuki və xarici işlər naziri Toqo Sigenorinin hökumətini müharibəni dərhal bitirməyə məcbur etmişdir. Faciəli partlayışlardan sonra Yaponiya qeyri-şərtsiz Amerikaya təslim olmuş, Günəşin oğlu adlandırılan Yapon İmperatoru Hirohito amerikalı general Duqlas Makarturun hüzurunda 2-ci dünya müharibəsinin sona çatmasını rəsmiləşdirən müqaviləni imzalamışdı.
15 avqust 1945-ci ildə Yaponiya kapitulyasiyasını elan etdi. 1945-ci ilin 2 sentyabrında imzalanmış kapitulyasiya aktı İkinci dünya müharibəsini formal olaraq bitirmişdir.

92 ŞƏRH

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