Eldorado. “Qızıl” Ölkə.

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Orta əsrlərdə Cənubi Amerika sivilizasiyaları İspan səyahətçilərinin (konkistadorlar) diqqətini cəlb edirdi. Onların bura gəlməsinin əsas səbəbi tez bir müddətdə zənginləşmək idi və konkistadorlar düşünürdülər ki, zənginləşmək üçün Cənubi Amerikada yerləşdiyi düşünülən “Qızıl Ölkə”ni- Eldoradonu tapmalıdırlar.

Eldorado- İspanca “Qızıldan” mənasını verən mifik Cənubi Amerika ölkəsidir. Əfsanələrə görə qızıl və qiymətli daşlarla zəngindir. Təbii ki, Eldorado zənginliklə əlaqələndirilən tək mifik Ölkə deyil, bu siyahıya inklərə məxsus olduğu düşünülən Paytitini,  Şimali Amerika əfsanəsi olan 7 Qızıl Şəhəri və Sageney ölkəsini əlavə etmək olar.

Eldorado haqqında əfsanənin yaranma səbəbi kimi isə Çibça ( Muisk) hindu qəbiləsinin adəti və İspan konkistadorlarının bu qəbilənin ərazisindən yığdıqları qızılın azlığı göstərilə bilər Belə ki, ispanların buradan yığdığı qızılın inklərin ərazisindən yığdıqları qızıldan az olması yerli qəbilə başçılarının ən yaxşı sərvətləri gizlətdiyinə işarə idi. Sərvətlərin axtarışı onları Eldoradonun real prototipi ola biləcək yerə- Quatavita adlı müqəddəs gölə gətirmişdi.

Quatavita gölü. Kolumbiya ərazisi
Quatavita gölü. Kolumbiya ərazisi

Gölün müqəddəs olma səbəbi isə Çibça hindularının yeni qəbilə başçısı seçərkən  Müqəddəs Gölün Əjdahasına ən yaxşı sərvətlərini qurban verməsi idi. Ritual belə həyata keçirilirdi: yeni qəbilə başçısının bədəni gillə örtülürdü, gil qatının üstünə isə qızıl tozu səpilirdi. Sonra o qiymətli daşlar və qızılla dolu qayığa oturub gölün ortasına üzürdü. Çıxan günü “Qızıl Adam”- Еl Hombre Dorado qarşılayırdı.

El Hombre Dorado- Qızıl Adam
El Hombre Dorado- Qızıl Adam

Bundan sonra isə göldə yuyunan qəbilə başçısı üstündəki qızıl tozunu və qayıqdakı qiymətli sərvətləri gölün dibində qoyurdu. Yalnız bundan sonra o qəbiləni idarə edə bilərdi.  Bu adətə görə bir çox konkistadorlar gölün dibində qızıl olduğunu iddia edirdilər.

Ekspedisiyalar. Eldoradonu axtarmaq üçün ilk ekspedisiya 1535-ci ildə Sebastyan de Belalkasar tərəfindən, son kəşfiyyat isə 1775-80-ci illərdə Nikolay Rodrigez tərəfindən təşkil olunmuşdur. Axtarışlara təkan verən səbəb isə 1533-cü ildə Perudan gətirilmiş 4 gəmi sərvət idi. Bundan sonra Yeni Dünyada Eldorado axtaran səyahətçilərin sayı kəskin artmışdı. Bir çoxları Eldoradonu  Amazon və Orinoko çayları arasında, Qvianada və Parime gölü sahillərində axtarırdı. Bu dövrlərdə Martines soyadlı bir ispaniyalı 7 ay Eldoradonun paytaxtı Manoada yaşadığı barədə şaiyə yaymışdı. Bütün bunların nəticəsi olaraq  axtarışlar ümumi coğrafi inkişafa təkan vermiş, böyük itkilər və sərflərə səbəb olmuşdur. Lakin lakin əfsanəvi Eldorado tapılmamışdır.  Günümüzdə Eldorado sözü bir çox  avropa dillərinə “nəticəsiz axtarış” simvolu kimi daxil olmuşdur.

Quatavita gölünə gəldikdə isə bəzi maraqlı faktlar qeyd olunur. Belə ki, Eldoradonun axtarışları  18-ci əsrdə yekunlaşsa da, Quatavita gölünün dibindəki qızılın axtarışı 21-ci əsrə qədər davam edib. Bundan sonra gölün ekologiyasına görə narahat olan Kolumbiya axtarışlara qadağa qoyub. Axtarışlar zamanı gölün dibindən çıxarılan bir tapıntı diqqəti cəlb edirdi. Bu, 1969-cu ildə tapılmış təmiz qızıl külçəsindən düzəldilmiş balaca sal idi.  Salın içində isə kral fiquru və 10 balaca fiqur yerləşirdi. Bu tapıntı Çibça tayfasının həqiqətən də sərvətlərini gölə qurban verdiyini təsdiqləyə bilər.

Quatavitadan tapılan balaca sal
Quatavitadan tapılan balaca sal

 

81 ŞƏRH

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