Rembrandt van Rijn kimdir?

65

Orta əsr rəssamları arasında xüsusi yer tutan rəssamlardan biri holland rəssam Rembrandt Harmens van Reyn (Rembrandt van Rijn) olmuşdur.
Rembrandt 1606-cı il 15 iyul tarixində Hollandiyanın Leyden şəhərində dəyirmançı ailəsində dünyaya göz açmışdır.İlk rəssamlıq dərslərini Leydendə Yakob van Svanenburxdan və Piter Lastmandan almışdır.Müəyyən zaman müddət ərzində (1625-1631) Leydendə işlədikdən sonra Amsterdama köçmüşdür.Amsterdamda Saskiya van Eylenbürx (1634-1642) və Hendrike Stoffels (1649-1663) evlənməsi onun yaradıcılığına öz təsirini göstərir.Belə ki,hər iki həyat yoldaşının vaxtsız həyatdan getməsi Rembrandta çox təsir etmişdi.Saskiyaya olan dərin məhəbbətini onun əsərlərində də görmək olar.(Məsələn “Saskiyanın portreti”əsəri)
Onun məşhur əsərlərindən olan “Doktor Tülpün anatomiya dərsi” (1632) əsərini Frans Halsın məşhur portretləri ilə eyniləşdirmək olmaz.

“Doktor Tülpün Anatomiya dərsi.” (1632)

Rəsmdə təsvir olunan şəxslərdən ikisinin şəxsiyyəti dəqiq məlumdur. Bunlar həkim Nikolas Tülp və meyit – Aris Kindtdir. Aris Kindt törətdiyi cinayətlərə görə məhkəmə qərarı ilə 31 Yanvar 1632-ci ildə asılaraq edam olunmuş və onun meyiti tibbi sınaqlar üçün Amsterdam cərrahlar gildiyasına verilmişdi.

“İsmayılın qurban kəsilməsi.”(1635)

 

İri həcmli dini kompozisiyalar da işləyən rəssamın bu janrdaki ən yaxşı əsərlərinə “İbrahimin qurban kəsilməsi” (1635), “Müqəddəs ailə” (1645), “Xəstələri dirildən İsa” (1649), “Samsonun gözlərinin çıxardılması” (1636) əsərlərini misal göstərmək olar.
Rəssamın reputasiyasında böyük rola malik olan rəsmlərdən biri də “Danaya” (1636) rəsm əsəridir.Müəllif rəsmin çəkilməsini 1636-cı il kimi qeyd etsə də,belə hesab edilir ki,bu əsər rəssamın həyatının son dövrlərində çəkildiyi ehtimal olunurdu.Yalnız 300 il sonra -1936-cı ildə Ermitaj muzeyində aparılmış rentgen analizindən sonra məlum oldu ki,əsər həqiqətən də əsərin rəssamın qeyd etdiyi dövrdə çəkilib.Danaya”nın sirri yalnız XX əsrin 60-cı illərində açılıb. Tədqiqatçılar əsəri rentgen şüaları ilə işıqlandırıblar, nəticədə məlum olub ki, Zevslə əlaqəyə girən çariçanın iki siması var. Əsərin ilk versiyasında rəssamın 1642-ci ildə vəfat etmiş həyat yoldaşı Saksiya təsvir olunsa da, final variantda Rembrandt özünün yeni məşuqəsi Herta Dirksi təsvir edib.Buna görə də onu bəzən “Həyat yoldaşını və məşuqəsini eyni əsərdə çəkmiş dahi” adlandırırlar.

“Danaya” (1636)

Oğlu Titusun gənc yaşlarında dünyasını dəyişməsi,həyat yoldaşlarından sonra ona dəyən üçüncü böyük zərbə oldu.Rembrandtın son dövrlərdə çəkmiş olduğu “Titusun portreti” oğluna həsr etmişdi.Bu portret dünya incəsənətində ən yaxşı gənc oğlan portreti hesab olunur.

 

Oğlu Titusa həsr etdiyi portretlər.

Həyatının son dövrlərində rəssamın yaradıcılığında qəm, küdurət, melanxoliya üstünlük təşkil etdiyini “Yan Siks” rəsmindən də yaxşı anlamaq olur.

“Yan Siks”

Rembrandt alman rəssam Götenin eyni adlı əsərindən ilhamlanaraq Faust əsrini də çəkmişdir.

 

“Faust”

Rembrandtın fırçası ilə dünya incəsənətinə 650 əsər bəxş etmişdir.(60-a yaxın avtoportret, 300 ofort və 1000-dən artıq rəsm əsəri )
Çətin və keşməkeşli həyat sürən Rembrandt 4 oktyabr 1693-cü ildə Amsterdamda dünyasını dəyişmişdir.

65 ŞƏRH

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