İçimizdəki rənglər: genlər

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İçimizdəki rənglər: genlər

Bizi milyonlarla insandan fərqləndirən, hamıdan seçən, özümüz edən xüsusiyyətlərimizi müəyyən edən nələrdir? Bu insanı həyəcanlandıran cəsarətli və açar sualdır.

Hər birimiz içimizdə milyon illərin miraslarını daşıyırıq. İndi olduğumuz yaşdan, elə bu yazını oxuduğumuz tarixdən zamanda geriyə getməyə başlayaq. 8 gün, 1 ay əvvələ yox, ilk var olduğumuz günə qədər gedək. Biz harada, hansı anda ilk dəfə mövcud olmuşuq? (Yazının sonunda səyahətə qayıdacam)

Baza məlumat: Canlıların bioloji quruluş vahidi hüceyrədir. Əllərimiz, ayaqlarımız, beynimiz və digər bütün orqanlarımız kiçik hüceyrələrdən ibarətdir. Bu hüceyrələrin hamısı bir hüceyrədən-ananın mayalanmış yumurta hüceyrəsindən yaranır. Başlanğıc hüceyrə bölünərək çoxalır və bütün orqanlarımızı təşkil edən hüceyrələri əmələ gətirir. Bölünmələr zamanı (hətta ahıl yaşda belə) ilk hüceyrənin ana və ata fərdlərin cinsi hüceyrələrindən aldığı genetik material yeni nəslə ötürülür.

       

Kök hüceyrələrdən sümük iliyi köçürülməsi və başqa xəstəliklərin müalicəsində istifadə olunur

İnsan ana bətnində iki cinsi hüceyrənin birləşməsi ilə həyat yoluna başlayır. Valideynlərin qametləri (cinsi hüceyrələr) birləşdikdən sonra yaranan hüceyrə ziqot adlanır. Ziqot özündə həm ana, həm də atanın cinsi hüceyrələrindən aldığı irsi məlumatları daşıyır. Müəyyən müddətdən sonra ziqot bölünməyə başlayır. Bölünüb yeni hüceyrələr yaratdıqca özündəki irsi materialı həmin yeni hüceyrələrə də ötürür. Ziqot totipotentdir (tam potensiallı). Yəni bu hüceyrə orqanizmin istənilən toxuma (sinir, birləşdirici, əzələ və s.) hüceyrəsinə çevrilə bilmə xüsusiyyətinə malikdir. Məsələn, ilkin mərhələdə milçəyin ayaq hissəsindəki hüceyrəni çıxarıb qanadların əmələ gələcəyi yerə qoysaq, onda həmin hüceyrələr ayağa yox, qanada başlanğıc verəcək.

Mayalanmadan 4 gün sonra insanda hüceyrələr totipotentliyini itirir. Genetik materialın müxtəlif kimyəvi və fiziki şərtlər daxilində fərqli hissələri oxunur və hüceyrələr ixtisaslaşırlar. 

 

DNT-nin üzərində nukleotidlər müxtəlif kombinasiyalar yaradaraq düzülüb. Onun bu nukleotidlərin birləşməsindən əmələ gələn mənalı hissəsi gen adlanır. Genin mənası onda müxtəlif əməliyyatlar üçün xüsusiləşmiş kodun olmağındadır. Gendə olan nukleotid ardıcıllığının verdiyi təlimatla bədənimizdə müxtəlif proseslər tənzimlənir. RNT-nin (ribonuklein turşusu-iki ana genetik materialdan biridir) köməyi ilə genin oxunması nəticəsində müəyyən maddələr sintez olunur və həmin maddələr canlı orqanizmdə baş verən proseslərin gedişini idarə edir.

 

Canlının fiziki xüsusiyyətlərini müəyyən edən informasiyanı daşıyan bu sıradan atomlardan əmələ gələn nukleotidlər və onların birləşmə ardıcıllığıdır. Nukleotidlər azotlu əsas, karbohidrat və fosfat qrupundan ibarətdir.

 

Cansız atomlardan ibarət gen nəhəng balinaların, zərif kəpənəklərin və digər canlıların fiziki quruluşunu və bədənində baş verən prosesləri necə idarə edir? Genin 3 nukleotid qrupu bir amin turşunu kodlayır. Gen üzərindəki kodu oxuyan mRNT (məlumat RNT-si) bu məlumatı DNT-dən ribosoma çatdırır. nRNT (nəqliyyat RNT-si) nüvədən gətirilmiş koda uyğun amin turşunu tapıb ribosoma gətirir. Koda uyğun gələn amin turşular ardıcıllıqla birləşir və zülal zəncirini qurur. Ümumiləşdirsək, DNT üzərindəki genlər oxunur, oradakı kodların surəti çıxarılaraq götürülür, həmin koda uyğun olan amin turşular birləşərək zülalları əmələ gətirir, onlar isə orqanizmin formalaşması və inkişafı üçün reaksiyaların getməsini təmin edir.

 

RNT-də timin əvəzinə urasil nukleotidi olur

Göz və saç rəngimiz kimi bir çox fiziki xüsusiyyətlərimiz, həmçinin cinsiyyətimiz də genetik materiala əsasən təyin edilir. Bədən hüceyrələrimizdə 46 xromosom olsa da, cinsi hüceyrələrimizdə onların sayı 23-dür. Somatik, yəni bədən hüceyrələrimizdə olan 46 xromosomdan 2-si bizim cinsi xromosomlarımızdır (qalan 44 xromosom isə autosomdur). Qadınlarda cinsi xromosom cütü “XX” kimi olduğu halda, erkəklərdə o “XY”-dir.

Somatik hüceyrələrdən fərqli olaraq cinsi hüceyrələr əmələ gələn zaman meyoz bölünmə nəticəsində xromosom cütü təklənir. Qadınlarda bir növ cinsi xromosom olduğu üçün bir növ də qamet (“X”) əmələ gəlir. Bunun əksinə olaraq erkəklərdə iki növ cinsi xromosom olduğu üçün iki növ cinsi hüceyrələr yaranır ki, onların bəziləri “X”, bəziləri isə “Y” xromosomunu daşıyır.

Əgər erkək fərd yeni nəslə bir vaxt anasından aldığı “X” xromosomunu ötürərsə qadın, atasından aldığı “Y” xromosomunu ötürərsə erkək cinsiyyətli fərd dünyaya gəlir. Qadınlar isə həm analarından, həm də atalarından yalnız “X” xromosomu aldıqları üçün yeni nəslə də, yalnız bir növ cinsiyyət xromosomu ötürür və cinsiyyətin müəyyən edilməsində bu baxımdan rol oynamırlar.

İnsanda və bir çox başqa heyvanlarda yeni yaranan fərdin

cinsiyyətinə dişi deyil, erkək cinsi hüceyrələrin tərkibindəki cinsi xromosom qərar verir

 

Bizim formalaşmağımızda aparıcı rol oynayan irsiyyət daşıyıcıları cansız təbiətdəki maddələrdən fərqli heç bir “sehrli dəyənəyə” sahib deyil. 2010-cu ildə “İnsan genomu” layihəsində yer almış genetik Craig Venter və əməkdaşları “Science” jurnalında “Kimyəvi yolla sintez edilmiş genom ilə yaradılan bir bakteriya hüceyrəsi” adlı məqalə yazdılar. Tədqiqat zamanı əvvəlcə sintetik genom hazırlandı. Genomu sintez etmək üçün adenin, quanin, sitozin və timin nukleotidləri bloklar şəklində yığıldı. Sonra öz genomu çıxarılmış bakteriyaya bu süni genom köçürüldü. Bakteriyanı genomunun dəyişdirilməsinin “fərqinə belə varmadan” yenidən həyata qaytardılar. Bu təcrübə genetik materialın  gerçəkdə düşüncələrdə olduğu qədər qeyri-adi olmadığını ortaya çıxardı. Həmçinin canlıların formalaşmağında ən vacib rol oynayan kimyəvi birləşmələrin valideyn hüceyrələrində deyil, laboratoriyada alınsa belə, onların funksiyalarının dəyişmədiyini və beləliklə, canlı və cansız təbiət arasında kəskin sərhəd olmadığını, əksinə onların tam bütün olduğunu göstərdi.

Zamanda geriyə gedək. 1 gün, 2 gün, 3 gün… Get-gedə yaşımız azalır, boyumuz qısalır, məktəb illərinə, bağça illərinə qayıdırıq, dayanmayıb davam edirik. Uşaq arabasında, beşikdə və hətta ana bətnindəyik, get-gedə orqanlarımız formasızlaşır, toxumalara çevrilir. Sona qədər kiçilək, indi biz yumurta borusunda mayalanmış “tənha” hüceyrəyik. Örtüyümüz, orqanoidlərimiz, nüvəmiz və onun içində genlərimiz var. Genlərin izi ilə valideynlərimizə, nənə-babalarımıza, onların valideynlərinə, onların da valideynlərinin valideynlərinə və bu minvalla daha da geriyə getsək əslində onların bizdən çox qoca olduğunu görər, içimizdə daşıdığımız genləri “əl fənəri” edib baxsaq çox möhkəm bağlarla canlı və cansız təbiətə aidliyimizi anlayarıq.

Genlər planetdə həyat yaranan dövrdən bu günə qədər ilkin okeandan çıxıb səmada quş qanadlarına qədər informasiyanı yaymış, dəyişmiş, bədəndən-bədənə süzülmüş, dünyamızı rəngləmiş, bakteriyalardan məməlilərə qədər canlıları çeşidləndirmiş, dönüb-dolaşıb biz-insanlara qədər gəlmişlər. Cansız atomların idarə etdiyi əsrarəngiz proseslərin nəticəsi olan canlıların tarixi genlərdə yazılır.

Tərcümə: Mehri Rəhimli

89 ŞƏRH

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