Neandertal Y-xromosomu, niyə ayrı növlər olaraq davam etdiyimizə ipucları təqdim edir


Cell Peressin dərc etdiyi American Human Genetics Jurnalında (Amerika İnsan Genetikası Jurnalı) məlumat verən tədqiqatçılar neandertalın Y xramasomunun ilk dərin genetik analizini yekunlaşdırmışdılar. Nəticələr müasir insanla neandertallar arasındakı əlaqə üzrə yeni məlumatlar həmçinin bu iki nəsili fərqli edə bilən bəzi genetik amillər irəli sürmüşdür.

Tədqiqatçılar qeyd edir ki, Y xromosomu Neandertal genomundan analiz edilə bilən mövcud əsas komponentdir. “Neandertalın Y xromosomunu xarakterizə etmək bizə Neandertallara və müasir insanlara gətirib çıxaran canlıların  ayrılmalarını daha yaxşı anlamağa kömək edir,” Stanford Universitetindən Fernando Mendez deyir. “Bu, həmçinin hibrid nəsil daxilində qədim və müasir  variantlarının mümkün genetik əlaqələrini araşdırmağa imkan verir.”

Mendez və onun Stanford Universitetindən Karlos Bustamante, Almaniyanın Təkamül Antropologiyası üzrə Max Planck İnstitutundan Sergi Kastellano da daxil olmaqla, həmkarları İspaniyada, El Sidronda tapılmış Neandertal kişinin Y xromosomunu analiz etmişdilər. Onların analizinə görə Neandertallar və müasir insanlar, daha əvvəlki dəlilə də uyğun olaraq, 590.000 il əvvəl ayrılmışlar.

Tədqiqatçılar qeyd edir ki, onların izlədiyi Neandertalın Y xromosomu müasir insanlarda müşahidə olunan hər hansı Y xromosomundan fərqlənir və bu o deməkdir ki, haqqında danışılan nəsil tükənmişdir. Onlar, həmçinin Neandertalın və müasir insanın Y xromosomlarındakı genlər arasında maraqlı zülal – kodlaşdırma fərqləri aşkar ediblər.

Bu dəyişikliklərdən üçü insanlarda kişilərə xas kiçik histouyğunluq (ayrı – ayrı ferdlerin toxumaları arasında uyğunluq) antigenleri istehsal etmək üçün tanınan genlerdə missens mutasiyalarından (nöqte mutasiyası,bunun neticesinde deyişikliye uğramış kodon başqa amin turşusunu kodlaşdırır) ibarətdir. Bu genlərin birindən ayrılmış, KDM5D kimi tanınan antigənlərin bəzi hamilə analarda kişi dölünə qarşı immun reaksiyası yaratdığı və uşaqsalmalara səbəb olduğu düşünülür.

Tədqiqatçılar hesab edir ki, bu genlerin birində və ya bir neçəsindəki uyğunsuzluqlar qədim insanlar və Neandertallar arasında cütləşməni azaldaraq onları ayrı salmaqda rol oynayıb.

“Bizim aşkar etdiyimiz mutasiyaların funksional təbiəti irəli sürür ki, bu Y xromosomu genin axmasına əngəl yaranmasında rol oynaya bilər,” Bustamente bildirib.

“Funksional fərqlərin çoxunun (sperm istehsalına) aid olan genlərdən daha çox, bu genlərlə əlaqədar olması faktı bizim üçün təəccüblü oldu,” Mendez əlavə edib.

Tədqiqatçılar qeyd edir ki, Neandertal və insan növlərinin hibridinin yaranmasına mane olan Y xromosomunun mutasiyalarının rolunu təsdiqləmək üçün əlavə araşdırmaya ehtiyac var. Hal hazırda onlar belə təcrübələri planlaşdırırlar.




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