Beynimizin böyüklüyünü yemək bişirməyi kəşf etməyimizə borcluyuq?

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Yeni elmi araşdırma insanın mühüm idrak bacarıqlarını izah etmək üçün uzun zamandır mövcud olan nəzəriyyənin -insan təkamülünün beynin ön (prefrontal) korteksinin seçmə üzrə genişlənməsini əhatə etməsi haqqında nəzəriyyənin – tabutuna son mismarı vurdu.

 

Bu, beynin mücərrəd düşüncəni, kompleks planlaşdırmanı və qərar verməni idarə edən ön sahəsinin, insanlarda olduğu kimi, insan olmayan primatlarda da eyni proporsiyalarda neyronlardan ibarət olmasının və eyni nisbi həcmi tutmasının müəyyən edilməsi ilə mümkün olub.

 

“İnsanlar insan beyninin xüsusi (qeyri-adi,müstəsna) olması fikrindən uzaqlaşmalıdırlar”, araşdırmaya rəhbərlik edən Vanderbilt Universitetinin neyro-alimi Suzana Herculano-Houzel bildirib. “Bizim beynimiz, əsas etibarilə, primat beynidir. Bu, ən böyük primat beyni olduğu üçün bir fərqli cəhəti var: onun kortikal neyronlarının sayı hər hansı primatdan daha çoxdur. 9 milyon neyrona malik qorilla və oranqutanlarla, 6-7 milyon neyrona malik şimpanzelərlə müqayisədə insanlarda 16 milyon neyron var. Bu, fərqlilikdir, lakin xüsusi (və ya müstəsna) deyil.”

 

Herculano-Houzel özünün “İnsanın Üstünlüyü: Bizim Beynimiz

Necə Fərqli (və ya Mükəmməl, qeyri-adi) Oldu” adlı məşhur elmi kitabında (MİT Press: Mart 2016) insan beyninin necə belə böyük, hətta bədəncə bizdən daha böyük olan qorilla və oranqutanların beyinindən daha böyük olduğunu izah edir. Onun cavabı təəccüb doğuracaq qədər sadədir. Bu, yəmək bişirmənin kəşfi ilə bağlıdır.

 

Alim xanım belə hesab edir ki, yemək bişirmə digər primatların beyininin ölçüsünü məhdudlaşdıran enerji baryerini (əngəlini) aşmaqda ilk insanlara kömək etmişdir. Onun ən son araşdırmalarının aşkar etdiyi kimi,insan beyinləri böyüdükcə onlar prefronatal (ön) korteksin ölçüsü də daxil olmaqla, primat beyninin əsas strukturunu saxlamışdır. Primatların beyinlərində prefrontal (ön) sahənin nisbi ölçüsünün müqayisəsi Herculano-Houzelin və doktorantura əməkdaşı Mariana Qabinin Milli Elmlər Akademiyasının İcraatlarında ilk nəşri kimi onlayn dərc olunmuş “Primat və insan təkamülündə prefrontal neyronların sayının nisbi artımı yoxdur” adlı məqaləsində təsvir edilmişdir.

 

Tədqiqatçılar insan olmayan primatların – donuz quyruqlu və xərçəng yeyən makakaların,babunların, ipək meymunların, qalaqoların, bayquş meymunların və kapuçinin müxtəlif ölçülü beyinləri ilə insan beynini müqayisə ediblər. Onlar aşkar ediblər ki, həm insanlar,həm də insan olmayan primatlar öz neyronlarının 8 faizini korteksin prefrontal sahəsinə verirlər.Əlavə olaraq, onlar müəyyən ediblər ki, insanın prefrontal boz və ağ cisminin həcmi, digər primatlarla müqayisə edilərkən ağ cisimdə neyronların və sair hüceyrələrin sayı üçün ehtimal olunan həcmə uyğun gəlir.

 

Yəmək bişirmə bizə digər primatların beyin ölçüsünü məhdudlaşdıran enerji əngəlini aşmağa imkan verdi. “Bizim böyük beyinlərimizin yaşaması çox baha başa gəlir. Onlar hər gün bədənin ehtiyac duyduğu bütün enerjinin 25 faizini istifadə edir”, Herculano-Houzel deyir. “Yəmək bişirmə digər primatların beyinlərinin ölçüsünü məhdudlaşdıran enerji baryerini aşmağa imkan verdi.”

 

Məsələn, qorillanı götürək. O, öz bədənini və bəynini saxlamaq üçün gündə ən azı 8 saatı yəməyə və otlamağa serf etməlidir. İnsan beyni qorilla beynindən üç dəfə böyükdür. Əgər qorillanın beyni insan beyni ölçüsündə olsaydı, o, yemək tapmaq üçün gündə əlavə bir saat yarım vaxt sərf etməli olardı. Beləliklə, qorillanın daha böyük bir beyni saxlaması üçün gün erzində sadəcə olaraq kifayət qədər saat yoxdur. Müvafiq olaraq,əgər insanlar hər hansı digər primat kimi yəsəydilər,biz gündə 9 saat yarım yeməyə sərf edərdik.

 

Bu yerdə yemək bişirmə öne çıxır. “Yemək bişirmə deyərkən, mən kəsməyi, doğramağı, əzməyi- yemək hazırlamanın hər növünü nəzərdə tuturam,” Herculano-Houzel bildirib “Elə kökü götürün. Onu çiy yesəniz, onu tam çeynəmək üçün 10-15 dəqiqə vaxtınızı sərf edəcəksiniz və həzm sisteminiz kalorinin yalnız üçdə birini əldə edəcəkdir. Amma siz kökü doğrasanız və bir neçə dəqiqə bişirsəniz, onu yemək bir neçə dəqiqənizi alacaq, bədəniniz isə kalorinin100% – ni əldə edəcəkdir.”

 

Herculano-Houzelin müəyyən etdiyi kimi, yemək bişirmənin mənşəyi 2.5 milyon il önce ilk daş alətlərin yarandığı dövrə təsadüf edir. Digər əşyalarla yanaşı,bu daş alətlər insanın ilk qida hazırlayıcıları olmuş,yeməyi dilimləməyə, doğramağa və əzməyə imkan vermişdir. Oddan nizamlı istifadə haqqında dəlil 400.000 il əvvələ təsadüf edir.

 

“Həmin ilk alət düzəldənlərin beyni qorillalarınkı ilə eyni ölçüdə idi. Lakin 1.8 milyon əvvəldən başlayaraq əcdadlarımızın beyinləri davamlı şəkildə böyüməyə başladı, növbəti 1.5 milyon il ərzində ölçüsü üç qat artıq oldu”, Herculano-Houzel bildirib.
“Heyranedicidir, lakin bu gün adi qəbul etdiyimiz bir şey – yemək bişirmə bizə böyük beyinlər verən elə bir transformasiya texnologiyasıdır ki,bizi özümüzü öyrənən və bilavasitə müşahidə olunanları aşan biliklər yaradan; özünə müdaxilə edən, eynəklər, implant və cərrahiyyə ilə natamamları (çatışmazlıqları) düzəldən(yoluna qoyan) və bununla təbii seçmənin qəribəliklərini dəyişən;öz ətraf-mühitini belə geniş şəkildə dəyişən (həm yaxşıya, həm pisə doğru), öz yaşayış yerlərini inanılmaz məkanlara qədər genişləndirən yeganə növə çevirmişdir.

 

 

Gertrud Konevey Vanderbiltin Fexri Psixologiya Professoru Con Kaas ve Rio De Janeyro Federal Universitetinden Kleber Neves, Karolina Masseron, Pedro Ribeiro, Lissa Ventura-Antunes, Laila Torres və Bruno Mota məqalənin birgə müəllifləridir.

 

Mənbə: sciencedaily

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