Kainat işıqdan sürətli genişləyir?

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Kosmologiya ilə əlaqədar ən məşhur mövzulardan bir dənəsi də kainatın işıq sürətindən daha sürətli genişləməsidir. Lakin bu cümlə bir xeyli əskikdir. Ağıllarda cavabsız, əksik cavablanmış bir çox sual və düşüncə yaradır. Kainat necə genişlənir? Necə olur ki işıq sürətini aşa bilir? Bu yazımızda bu mövzunu ələ alacağıq.Bilməyimiz lazım olan ən əsas anlayışlardan biri, kainatın hər nöqtədən genişləməsidir. Yəni tək bir nöqtədən xaricə doğru deyil hər nöqtədən genişləyir. Bunu izah etmək üçün bir az riyaziyyatdan faydalanmalıyıq. Çünki bəzən sözlər yerinə ədədlər daha çox mənalıdır.

Kainatın gənişləməsindən danışarkən Habl sabiti adını verdiyimiz bir rəqəmdən  faydalanırıq. Bu bizə kainatın genişləmə sürətini verir və hesab edilən kimi işıq sürətindən böyük bir rəqəm deyil. Hətta çox kiçik bir rəqəmdir. Amma necə baxdığınıza bağlıdı.

 

Habl sabiti bizə 1 megaparsek uzaqlıqdakı hər hansı bir göy cisminin kainatın gənişləməsindən ötəri bizdən saniyədə 68 kilometr sürətlə uzaqlaşacağını deyir. (1 megaparsek təxminən 3.26 milyon işıq ilidir) Bir misalla araşdıracaq olsaq; bizdən 3.26 milyon işıq ili uzaqdakı bir Qalaktika heç bir hərəkətə sahib deyilsə, yəni bizə nə yaxınlaşır nə uzaqlaşırsa, sırf kainatın genişlənməsi üçün bizdən saniyədə 68 kilometr sürətlə uzaqlaşmalıdır.

 

Bu vəziyyət 1 megaparsek uzaqlıqdakı bir cisim üçün əsaslanır. Yaxşı 2 megaparsek uzaqlıqdakı bir cisim üçün nəcə olur? Bu dəyərin tam iki qatı sürətlə uzaqlaşır, yəni 136 kilometr saniyə. 3 megaparsek üçün saniyədə 204 kilometr. Bu dəyər bu şəkildə gedərək artır. Yəni nə qədər uzaqdırsa, o qədər sürətli uzaqlaşmalıdır. Hər yerdə verilən şişirilən şar nümunəsini vermək məcburiyyətindəyik, çünki ən yaxşı nümunə budur.

 

Əgər bir şarın üzərinə çox sayda nöqtə çəkib və bu şarı şişirməyə başlasanız, nöqtələr bir-birindən uzaqlaşmağa başlayacaq. Halbuki nöqtələrin əslində hamısı harəkətsizdir, yalnızca üzərində olduqları şar şişdiyi üçün baxdığınız zaman hərəkət edirmiş kimi görünəcək. Bundan başqa, bir-birinə yaxın nöqtələr arasındakı məsafə daha yavaş artdığı halda, uzaq nöqtələr daha sürətli bir-birindən uzaqlaşacaq. Eynən kainatda olduğu kimi.

 

Fərq etdinizsə, kainat genişləyərkən əslində qalaktikalar (qalaktikalar çoxluqları) hərəkət etmirlər. Şar nümunəsində olduğu kimi, əslində hamısı sabit şəkildə dayanmış olsalar belə, aralarında olan kosmos-zaman toxumasının genişlənməsi üçün hərəkət edirmiş kimi görünürlər. Buna görə də, “heç bir şey işıq sürətini aşa bilmirsə, necə olur ki qalaktikalar işıq sürətindən sürətli uzaqlaşır?” sualı etibarlılığını itirir. Çünki, qalaktikalar hərəkət etmir, “şar şişir” … Eynşteyn hələ də haqlıdıri, yəni həvəslənməyin.

Bu arada Kainat genişlədiyi zaman uzaqlaşan qalaktikalar deyil qalaktika qruplarıdır. Ətraflı bu məqaləmizi  oxumağınızda fayda var.

Vəziyyət belə olduğu halda elə bir nöqtəyə gəlirsiniz ki artıq, o nöqtədəki uzaqlaşma sürətiniz işıq sürətinə bərabər olur. Bax biz bu sərhədi Habl cevrəsi adı altında izah edirik. Bu nöqtənin kənarında uzaqlaşma sürəti işıq sürətini keçdiyi üçün, o nöqtədən bizə gəlməyə çalışan bir işıq bizə çata bilmir. Bu eynilə qaçış bantı üzərində irəliləməyə çalışmaq kimidir. Əslində işıq yol alır, lakin bant həmişə onu geri atır. Bax bu nöqtədən sonrası üçün kainatın genişləmə sürətindən qaynaqlanan uzaqlaşma, işıq sürətindən böyükdür deyə bilərik. Lakin kainatın genişləmə sürəti 1 megaparsekə (3.26 milyon işıq ili) görə 68 kilometrdir

 

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