Kapqras sindromu

79

Psixoloji xəstəliklər sırasında çox nadir eşitdiyimiz, ancaq Avropa ölkələrində həm psixiatrların, həm də klinik psixoloqların rastlaşdığı bir neçə qəribə sindrom var. Bunlardan biri Kapqras sindorumudur (Capgras syndrome). Bu xəstəlik ilk dəfə 1923-cü ildə fransız psixiatr Kapqras tərəfindən sayıqlama pozuntusu olaraq qeydə alınıb və adətən bu sindrom paranoid şəxsiyyət pozuntusu ilə birgə özünü biruzə verir. Sindroma çox nadir rast gəlindiyindən, bu xəstəlik üzrə araşdırmalar bir o qədər də çox olmayıb. Ancaq əldə edilən məlumatlar əsasında xəstəliyin nevropsixoloji və psixoloji səbəbləri müəyyən edilib.

 

Sindromun təsviri…

Kapqras sindromu olan şəxslər xüsusi ilə emosianal əlaqə qurduqları şəxslərə, əşyalara ya da heyvanlara qarşı yadlaşma hissinin olması ilə tanınırlar. Şəxslərin üzlərini xatırlamaqlarına baxmayaraq, onlarla bağlı duyğuları xatırlaya bilmirlər. Məhz bu səbəbdən Kapqras sindromu olan şəxslər  tanıdıqları birini gördükdə “Görəsən, onun yerinə başqası keçib?” düşüncəsini yaşayırlar. Emosianal əlaqə qura bilmədiklərindən bu sindromu yaşayan şəxslər həmin tanıdıqları insanlardan qaçmağa, onlarla ünsiyyəti məhdudlaşdırmağa və özlərini qorumaq üçün müxtəlif vasitələrə əl atmağa çalışırlar. Beyinlərində həmin şəxslərin onlara ziyan verə biləcəyini və ya onlardan istifadə edəcəyi düşüncəsini yaşayırlar. Sindromu uzun müddət yaşayan şəxslərdə isə öz yaxınlarına qarşı aqressivləşmə, onlara qarşı müəyyən fiziki zərbənin yetirilməsi halları müşahidə edilib. Xəstələr çıxılmaz olduğunu düşündükləri vəziyyətlərdə isə intihara da cəhd edə bilirlər.

 

Kapqras sindromunun ən əsas xüsusiyyəti duyğu ilə görüntü arasındakı əlaqənin pozulmasıdır. Bu vəziyyət limbik sistem ilə görmə mərkəzi arasındakı sinir bağlantısının lazımı şəkildə olmamasından irəli gəlir. Kapqras sindromu olan şəxslər yaxınları ilə telefonda danışdıqları zaman həmin duyğunu yaşamaqlarına baxmayaraq, onları həyatda gördüklərində eyni duyğunu yaşaya bilmirlər.

 

Səbəbləri…

 

Beynin təpə payında (parietal lobe) hər hansı bir travma ya da şişlə bağlı yaranan dəyişikliklər Kapqras sindromunun səbəblərindən biri olaraq bilinir. Beynin həmin bölgəsi şəxslərin və ya digər canlıların tanınması, onların şəxs üçün hansı mənanı verməsi və onların oxşarlıqları arasında yaşanan duyğu fərqinin başa düşülməsinə səbəb olan bölgədir. Reallıq duyğusu bu şəkildə yaranır. Normal vəziyyətdə insanlar təkcə başqalarını, əşyaları yox, həm də öz mənliklərini, ya da bədənini bu bölgə sayəsində tanıyırlar.  Təpə payında yaranan hər hansı pozuntu zamanı travmanın dərinliyindən asılı olaraq sadalanan xüsusiyyətlərin hamısı ya da bir neçəsi deaktiv olduğuna görə xəstələr bəzi vəziyyətlərdə öz bədənlərini hiss edə bilmirlər. Bədən üzvlərinin özlərinə aid olmamasını belə düşünə bilirlər. Bu isə ayrılıqda asomatognozi termini ilə ifadə olunur.

 

Hətta bəzən təpə payında hər hansı travmanın və ya dəyişikliyin olmamasına baxmayaraq, şəxslər Kapqras sindromundan əziyyət çəkə bilərlər. Ambivalans duyğu pozuntusu (eyni şəxsə qarşı iki zidd duyğunun olması) da qıcıqlandırıcı səbəblərdən biri kimi bilinir. Xəstə çox yaxın biri ilə bağlı nifrət hissi yaşadığı zaman onun yaxın biri olduğundan bunu ona hiss etdirməməyə çalışır. Yaxın olan birinə belə nifrət hiss etdiyindən isə özünü daim günahlandırır.

 

Belə vəziyyətdə şüuraltı vəziyyətə müdaxilə edərək, bədənini pis təsirdən qorumaq üçün şəxsin qavrayışında müəyyən oyunlar oynamağa başlayır. Və həmin insan özü də fərqində olmadan nifrət etdiyi insanla arasında olan hər hansı əlaqənin yalan olduğunu düşünməyə başlayır. Onun yerinə başqasının keçdiyinə, onun yerindəkinin həmin insan olmadığına özünü inandırır. Adaptasiya və güvən problemləri ilə xarakterizə olunan paranoid vəziyyətlər də Kapqras sindromuna səbəb olan durumlardandır. Xəstəliyin başqa psixoloji pozuntularla bir yerdə rast gəlinmə ehtimalı, onun tək rast gəlinmə ehtimalından isə daha çoxdur…

 

Müəllif: Klinik Psixoloq Aysel İsgəndərli

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva (25.11.2017)

79 ŞƏRH

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