Kainatın rəngi: Kosmik Latte

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Hər keçən gün ovsunlayıcı kainatımızın fərqli bir rəsmi və ya fotoşəkili ortaya çıxır. Yaxşı kainatın fotoşəkilinə baxdığınız zaman nə görürsünüz? Ulduzlar, qalaktikalar, supernovalar və böyük qaranlıq. Bəs sizə bu qaranlığın qaranlıq olmadığını kainatın əsl rənginin “latte” olduğunu desək necə? Bəli kainatın bu anda əsl rəngi İtalyan dilində süd mənasını verən lattedir. Astronomlar uzun araşdırmalardan sonra kainatın “orta” bir rəngi olaraq latte rəngini ortaya qoydular.

 

2001-ci ildə Karl Glazebrook və Ivan Baldry kainatın rəngini yaşımtıl ağ olduğunu təyin etmişdi. Ancaq qısa bir müddət sonra öz araşdırmalarına kainatdakı bütün işığın rənginin yüngülcə ağ olduğunu əlavə edərək analizlərini düzətdilər. Bu araşdırmaya 200.000’dən çox qalaktika daxil edilərək kainatın böyük bir sahəsindən gələn işığın spektral aralığı qiymətləndirilərək edilib. Lakin bu əməliyyatı tək-tək etmək olduqca çətin, az qala qeyri-mümkündür. Bu baxımdan kainatın rəngini təyin etmək üçün fərqli bir yol seçmişlər. Bu yolu qısaca izah edək:

 

2DF Qalaktika qırmızıya sürüşmə araşdırmasında istifadə edərək 200.000 qalaktikadan gələn ümumi işıq alınaraq kainatın rəngini öyrənməyimiz mümkün oldu. 200.000 qalaktikadan gələn bu işıqların kosmik dalğa boyları işığın fərqli dalğa boyları üçün kainatda yayılan enerjinin bir qrafikidir. Kosmik dalğa boyları adı verilən bir qrafik bizə bütün ulduzların dalğa boyunu verir.

 


İşığın fərqli dalğa boyları üçün kainatda yayılan enerjisi. Ultrabənövşəyi və mavi işıq solda; qırmızı işıq sağdadır.

 

Bütün qalaktikaların rənglərini araşdırmaq yerinə qalaktikalardan yayılan işıqların kosmik spektrumuna baxmaq bəsdi. Əslində kainatın rəngi yerinə kainatdakı bütün şüanın yekun qarışığı demək daha doğru bir anlayış olar. Burda müxtəlif filtrlər vasitəçiliyi ilə rəng təyinləri edilir və nəhayət kainatın əsl rəngi tapılır. Əslində, işığın o kiçik parlaqlıqları kosmosun gerçək ortalama rəngini təmsil edir.

 

Kainatdakı bu gün gördüyümüz ulduzların çoxu təxminən 5 milyard il əvvəl meydana gəlmiş olan bir nəsildir. Keçmişdə, bu ulduzların əhəmiyyətli bir hissəsi parlaq və mavi olaraq ortaya çıxdı. Ancaq ulduzlar yaşlandıqca mavidən sarıya və son olaraq da qırmızı rəngə çevrilir, yəni qırmızılaşırlar. Bununla bağlı ətraflı bu yazımızı oxuya bilərsiniz. Bu yaşlanan ulduzlar sayəsində kainatın rəngi yavaş yavaş göy rəngə çalan bir rəng tonundan qırmızımtıla doğru sürüşmüşdür. Əgər bir dəfəyə bütün işığı görə bilsəydik -yəni gözlərimiz bir yük maşını təkəri qədər böyük olsaydı- qəbul etdiyimiz bütün rənglərin ortalaması latte olacaqdı. Kainatın ortalama rəngini kəşf edən elm adamları buna Kosmik Latte adını verib.

 

 

İndiki halında kainatın “ortalama rəngi” bu görmüş olduğunuz “latte” rəngi ilə təmsil olunur.

 

Eyni işığı alıb bir dəfəyə hamısına baxaraq bir prizmadan keçirsəniz, bu rənglərin az qala hamısı bir göy qurşağı yaradacaq. Biz bunu Dünyada bənövşəyidən qırmızıya keçid şəklində görürük. Prizmalar, xarakteristik göy qurşağı ilə nəticələnən görünən işığı fərqli rənglərə ayıraraq işləyir. Kainatdan bütün görünən işığı ayıran prizma, bizə vərdiş olandan bir az fərqli bir spektri verəcəkdir. Bu işığın bütün bir şəkilini əldə etmək üçün elm adamları 200.000’dən çox qalaktikanın işıq məlumatlarına baxdılar. Sonra onlar kainatdakı işığın fərqli dalğa boylarında yayılan enerjinin bütün cəmini təmsil etməsi məqsədiylə “Kosmik spektri” inşa etdilər.

 

Elm adamları kainatın ortalama rənginə çatmaq üçün rənglərin göyqurşağından istifadə etmişlər. Bu rəng ulduzların yaşlanmasından ibarət qırmızıya sürüşmə ilə formalaşır. Yeni ulduzların daha az meydana gəlməsi, daha çox yaşlı ulduzun formaşalmasına və daha çox ulduzun qırmızı nəhənglər halına gəlməsinə səbəb olacaq. Sonunda, “Kosmik Latte ‘qırmızıya sürüşmə ilə çiyələkli Frappuccino kimi görünə bilər. Bu mövzu üzərində araşdırma edən Dr Baldry’e görə ‘kosmik spektri’ kainatda ulduz meydana gəlməsi tarixi haqqında daha ətraflı zəngin məlumat verir.

 


Bu gün “kosmik latte” olaraq adlandırdığımız kainatın orta rəngi, milyard illər sonra “Çiyələkli Frappuccino”ya çevriləcək

 

Ulduzların meydana gəlməsi üçün lazım olan element hidrogendi. Hidrogen yüksək təzyiq nəticəsində alovlanar və yanmağa başlayır. Bunun nəticəsində isə əvvəlcə heliumu meydana gətirər, sonra helium yanaraq karbon elementlərini təşkil edir. Bu əməliyyat böyük kütləli ulduzlarda dəmir elementinə qədər irəliləyir. Ulduz ölümü sonrasındakı komet partlamalarında isə digər elementlər formalaşır.

 

Diqqətinizi ediləcək nöqtə burada hidrogen olmalıdır və hidrogen ilk ulduzun meydana gəlməsini təmin edir. Yeni ulduzlar yarandıqca kainatdakı hidrogen ehtiyatları azalır və böyük kütləli mavi ulduzların sayı gün keçdikcə azalır. Çünki yüksək istilik kütləyə bağlıdır. Böyük nəhəng ulduzları meydana gətirəcək hidrogen ehtiyatı azaldıqca ulduzlar daha kiçik ölçülərdə və qırmızıya yaxın rənglərdə formalaşar. Hidrogen ehtiyatının azalması kainatın gün keçdikcə qırmızı olmasında rol oynayır.

 

Elm adamlarının yaratdığı 2DF modelinə görə bundan 5 milyard il əvvəl gənc mavi ulduzların bu günə nisbətən daha çox sayda olduğu görülür. Elm insanları 7 milyard il sonrakı kainatın rəngini nəzəri olaraq 5 milyard il əvvəlki rənginə baxaraq təyin edə bilirlər. Bu məlumatların işığında geriyə doğru getdiyimiz zaman qara rəngə çatmaq isə kainatın 14 milyard il əvvəl formalaşmağa başladığı fikrini dəstəkləyir.

 

Kainat gənc və mavi ulduzlarla başladı və gün keçdikcə qırmızı nəhəng dövrü artmağa başladı. Ulduzların arasındakı hidrogen ehtiyatı son 6 milyard ildə sürətlə azalmışdır. Bax bu nəticədən də 7 milyard il sonra Kainatın rəngini, “Çiyələkli Frappuccino” kimi təxmin edə bilirik.

 

Qaynaqlar;

  • Cosmic latte / wikipedia
  • http://www.pha.jhu.edu/~kgb/cosspec/
  • Scientists Have Figured Out What Color The Universe Is / business insider
  • http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap091101.html
  • http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110405.html
  • science for the curious dicovery / The Milky Way bridges from here to eternity
  • The Cosmic Spectrum and the Color of the Universe/ By Karl Glazebrook & Ivan Baldry
  • The universe is beige / the telegraph
  • The Bivariate Luminosity-Color Distribution of IRAS Galaxies and Implications for the High-Redshift Universe / the astrophysical journal
  • What Color is the Universe? / It’s Okay To Be Smart

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