Mifologiyadan elmə keçiş. Sorğulayanlar.

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Yunan tanrılarından və mifologiyasından hər kəsin az-çox bilgisi var. Bəs necə oldu ki,o tanrılar bu günlərə qədər gəlib çıxmadı? Politeizm,yəni çox tanrılıq günümüzdə fanastik filmlərə mövzu olan bir mifologiyadır,amma vaxtilə Yunanıstanda insanların yaradılış fikirlərin əsasında politeizm dururdu. Tanrıları ilk sorğulayanın kim olduğunu bilə bilmərik,amma bugünə gəlib çıxan fəlsəfi əsərlərə əsasən bu şəxsin Fales olduğunu deyə bilərik. Fales həndəsə kitablarından (Fales teoremi) bizə tanış bir addır.

Fales bütün yaradılışın su ilə bağlı olduğunu deyib,yəni ona görə hər şey sudur. Yaradılışı maddə ilə bağlamasına görə biz ona ilk materialist desək doğru olmaz. Çünki Falesə görə ruh da ,tanrı da sudan ibarətdir. Falesin bu fikri “canlı maddəçilik” olaraq adlandırılır. Falesin fəaliyyəti təkcə ilk filosof olmaqla qalmadı,ilk fəlsəfə məktəbi olaraq dəyərləndirilən Milet məktəbini də yaratdı. Bu məktəbdən dünya tarixinə ilk filosoflar olaraq keçən 2 şagirdini də yetişdi. Bunlar Anaksimandr(os) və Anaksimen(es) oldu. Bu iki filosof da Falesin izindən gedərək yaradılışı maddələrlə izah etməyə çalışırdılar. Anaksimandr(os) yaşamın arkesini(yunanca başlanğıc) apeiron(yunanca sonsuz) olaraq adlandırdığı bir maddə ilə izah edirdi. O deyirdi ki,var olan hər şey apeiron’dan gəlib,öldükdə,məhv olduqda da ona gedir. Yəni dəyişməz və sonsuzdur. Apeiron abstrak(mücərrəd) bir maddə idi,ona görə də onu bəzən ilk materialist adlandırırlar. Anaksimandr(os) həmçinin fikirlərini yazan ilk filosofdur.

anaximander_cosmology-tr-svg
Anaksimandrın astronomik xəritəsi

Anaksimandr(os) həmçinin astronomiyanı yaradan şəxslərdən hesab olunur. Çünki ilk dəfə bu mövzu mifoloji yanaşmayan şəxs odur,amma o ulduzların günəşdən,hətta aydan belə kiçik və yaxında olduğunu düşünürdü.

Anaksimen(es) isə Anaksimandrdan fərqli olaraq Fales kimi yaradılışın başlanğıcını “canlı” maddədə görürdü. Ona görə hər şey havadan yaranmışdı,tanrı da ,ruh da havada idi. O digər maddələrin-daşın,torpağın,suyun,mineralların və.s havanın qatılaşmasından əmələ gəldiyinə inanırdı. O düşünürdü ki, havanın sıxışdıranda buxar əmələ gəlir,o buxardan su yaranır. Su palçığı,palçıq torpağı,torpaq da daşı yaradır. Belə düşünməsi normal idi,çünki havanın tərkibində su olduğunu bilmirdi.
Anaksimen(es) həmçinin ilk canlı-cansız ayırımını edən şəxsdir. O bunu “hər canlının bir ruhu var” deyərək əsaslandırıb.
Ümumiyyətlə, antik dövr filosoflarının hamısının qarşısında konkret problemlər vardı:Yaradılışı mifologiyadan fərqli üsullarla izah etmək. Yaradılışı riyazi üsullarla qeydə almaq.
Fəlsəfənin və ilk sorğulayanların niyə Yunanıstanda yaranması ilə bağlı isə Aristotel(es) Metafizika əsərində belə qeyd edir:”Fəlsəfə düşünən insanların işidir. Bizim də düşünmək üçün boş vaxtımız var idi”. O dövr ilk filosoflarından Miletlilərdən başqa Pifaqorçuları da demək olar. Həmçinin deyə bilərik ki,qədim yunanlılar qədim Misir mədəniyyəti ilə də tanış idi.
Ziya M.

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