İnsan-donuz hibridi laborotoriyalarda yaradılır- Faktlar burdadır

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Alimlər mübahisəli və yaddaqalan bir şücaətlə elan etdilər ki, onlar ilk uğurlu insan-heyvan hibridini yaradıblar. Bu layihə sübut edir ki, insan hüceyrələri qeyri-insan oqanizmlərə də daxil edilə və orada yaşaya, hətta yetişə də bilər. Burada isə ev sahibi orqanizm donuzdur. Bu biomedikal irəliləyiş donor orqanların kritik çatışmazlığı problemini həll etməyə çalışan elm adamları üçün uzun zamandır ki, bir arzu və tərəddüd idi. Hər on dəqiqədən bir, bir insan orqan transplantasiyası üçün “Milli gözləmə siyahısı” na əlavə edilir. Hər gün bu siyahıda olan iyirmi iki insan ehtiyacı olduğu orqansız ölür. Alicənab bir donoru gözləməkdənsə, insanın orqanlarını bir heyvanın orqanizmində yetişdirə bilsə idik necə olard?.   Bu hal-hazırda Salk institutu tərəfindən qurulan araşdırmaçıların beynəlxalq komandasının verdiyi məruzəyə görə reallığa bir addım da yaxındır. Komanda elmi adı çimera olan bir şey yaradıblar. Bu elə bir orqanizmdir ki, iki müxtəlif növün hüceyərlərini daşıyır.  Keçmişdə insan-heyvan çimeraları əlçatan deyildilər. Bu cür eksperimentlər hal-hazırda ABŞ tərəfindən maliyyələşdirilmir. İctimai fikir də yarı heyvan-yarı insan yaradılmasına qarşıdır. Buna baxmayaraq əsas araşdırmaçı olan Jun Vu ya görə bizim sadəcə mifik çimeralara- heyvan-quş hibridi fərqli perspektivdən baxmağımız kifayət edər. “ Keçmiş mədəniyyətlərdə, çimeralar tanrılarla əlaqələndirilirdi ”- o deyir və əlavə edir ki, bizim əcdadlarımıza görə çimeralar insanlar üçün qoruyucu idilər. Elə komandanın ümid etdiyi də budur.

 

 

Çimera yaratmaq

Çimera yaratmaq üçün iki yol var. Birinci yol bir heyvanın orqanlarını digərinə daxil etməkdir, hansı ki çox risklidir, çünki ev sahibinin immunitet sistemi orqanı rədd edə bilər. Digər metod isə embrionik səviyyədən başlamaqdır, bir heyvanın hüceyrələrini digərinin embrionuna daxil etmək və onlara hibrid şəklində böyüməyə imkan yaratmaqdır. Bu qəribə səslənir, lakin bu laborotoriyada yetişdirilən orqanlarla yaşanılan bioloji problemləri ən sonunda həll edə bilmək üçün çox ağıllı bir üsuldur.

 

Elm adamları istənilən bədən toxumalarını yarada bilən kök hüceyrələri kəşf edəndə sonsuz bir elmi söz vermiş kimi görünürdülər, ancaq bu hüceyrələrlə doğru toxumaları və orqanları yaratmaq çox çətindir. Hüceyrələr Petri qablarında yaşamalıdırlar. Alimlər orqanların düzgün formada yetişməsini təmin etmək üçün alətlərdən istifadə etməlidirlər. Çox hallarda da pasientlər ağrılı proseslərdən keçməlidirlər ki, lazımlı toxumalar toplanıla bilsin.  Əvvəllər Salk İnstitutunun professoru Xuan Karlos Belmonte düşünürdü ki, ev sahibi embrionu istifadə etmə konspeti sadədir, lakin buna o və kolleqaları üçün 4 il  lazım oldu ki, çimera düzəldilməsi prosesinin necə olduğunu təxmin edə bilsinlər. Bunu etmək üçün onlar bundan əvvəl siçanlar və siçovullar üzərində aparılmış çimera araşdırmasından istifadə etdilər.

 

Başqa alimlər artıq siçovulun pankreatik toxumalarının siçanda necə yetişdirilməsini təxmin edə bilmişdilər. Komanda elan etmişdi ki, siçovulların orqanizmində yetişdirilən siçan pankreaları sağıam orqanların hissələri xəstə siçana transplantasiya ediləndə diabeti çox uğurla müalicə edə bilmişdi. Bu qrup isə konsepti biraz da irəliyə apardı və genom dəyişdirmə aləti olan CRİSPR-dan istifadə edərək siçan kök hüceyrələrini manipulyasiya ediblər. Onlar siçanın müxtəlif orqanları istehsal etməyə lazım olacaq genlərini siliblər. Onlar bu orqanları istehsal etmək üçün lazım olacaq siçovulun kök hüceyrələrini daxil etikdə isə bu hüceyrələr inkişaf ediblər. Bu siçan özünün yetkinlik dövrünə qədər yaşaya bilmişdi, hətta 18 milyon ildir bu növdə rast gəlinməyən öd kisəsi belə var idi.

 

Rədd riski

Komanda kök hüceyrələri siçovullardan götürüb və onları donuz blastositinə daxil ediblər.  Bu versiya təəccüblü deyil ki alınmadı, çünki siçovul və donuzun müxtəlif hamiləlik vaxtı və müxtəlif təkamüli əcdadları var. Buna baxmayaraq donuzların insanlarla nəzərəçarpacaq dərəcədə oxşarlıqları var. Baxmayaraq ki onların hamiləlik müddəti qısa olur, orqanları bizimkilərə çox oxşayır. Bu oxşarlıqlar işi daha da asanlaşdırdı. Komanda müəyyən etdi ki, donuzları öldürmədən insan hüceyrələrini donuzlara daxil etmək üçün sadəcə düzgün vaxtı müəyyən etmək lazımdır.

 

“ Biz inkişaf mərhələsində müxtəlif vaxtları təmsil edən üç müxtəlif insan hüceyrəsi növünü yoxladıq” – Salk İnstitutunun alimi və məqalənin ilk müəllifi Jun Vu izah edir. Onlar sınaqlar və səhvlər vasitəsi ilə öyrəndilər ki, sonsuz potensiala sahib olan kök hüceyrələr onun daha çox inkişaf etdirdiyi digərləri kimi yaxşı yaşaya bilmədilər. Bu insan hüceyrələri donuz embriolarına daxil ediləndə, embriolar yaşadılar. Sonra onlar yetkin donuzlara qoyuldular və o bu hüceyrələri onlar çıxarılıb analiz edilməzdən əvvəl 3-4 həftə saladılar. “Bundan sonra komanda 186 həyatda qalan çimerik embrionlar yaratdılar” – Jun Vu deyir və deyir ki, onlar bunların hər birinin 100 min insan hüceyrəsindən birini daşıdığını təxmin edirlər.

 

Şimali Karolina universitetinin professoru Ke Chengə görə bu rəqəm çox aşağıdır və uzun dönəməki metodlar üçün problem yaradır. Cheng qeyd edir ki, insan toxuması embrionun inkişaf sürətini azaldır və belə embriolardan inkişaf edən orqanlar inkişaf etdikcə daha çox donuz toxumasına sahib olduqları üçün insanlar tərəfindən rədd edilə bilərlər.  Chengə görə növbəti böyük addım embrionun qəbul edə biləcəyi insan hüceyrələrinin sayının arta bilib-bilməyəcəyini öyrənməkdir. Belmont razılaşır və qeyd edir ki, işləyən insan orqanları yaratmaq illər ala bilər. Bu texnika ən qısa müddətdə insan embriosunun inkişafını öyrənmək və xəstəlikləri başa düşmək üçün istifadə edilə bilər və bu məlumatlar yeni bir orqan inkişaf etdirmək qədər dəyərli ola bilərlər. Cheng qeyd edir ki, hələ görülməli başqa addımlar da var.

 

Mənbə; National Geographi

 

Hazırladı: Mətləb Məmmədli

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