Nevrologiya sizi daha ağıllı edə bilərmi?

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Mürəkkəb nevroloji araşdırmalardan biri də bizə necə yaxşı yaşamağı göstərən və necə yaxşı fikirləşməyi öyrədən beyin eksperimentidir. “Zəng əyrisi”ndən (The Bell Curve) tutmuş Pozitron Tomoqrafiyası nəticələrinə (PET scans) qədər biz ümid edirik ki, nevroloji  və psixoloji araşdırmalar  cəmiyyətimizin formalaşmasında bizə bələdçilik edəcək. Uşaq böyütmək üçün beyin haqqında ən son tapıntılardan istifadə etmək bu araşdırmada ən böyük mükafatdır.
Mənim nevrologiya sahəsində son zamanlar oxuduğum ən heyrətamiz məqalələrdən biri də Carol Dveckin “ağıllı uşaqlar böyütmək üçün sirr” məqaləsidir. Bu mətn uşaqların zəka müxtəlifliyinin onların məktəbdəki performansına necə təsir etdiyi barəsindəki Dvek və digərlərinin araşdırmalarını müzakirə edir. “Sabit zehniyyət”li ( fixed mindset) uşaqlar fikirləşirlər ki, zəka anadangəlmədir, və eyni zamanda “artan zehniyyətli” (growth mindset) uşaqlar isə hesab edirlər ki, zəka gərgin çalışmaqla qazanılır. Dvekin tapdığı budur ki, sabit zehniyyətli uşaqlar çətin problemlərlə qarşılaşan zaman daha tez əl çəkirlər, çünki onlar hesab edirlər ki, artıq əllərindən gələni ediblər. Əgər onlar istedadlı olsa idilər, problemlər daha asan olardı. Amma, inkişaf yönümlü uşaqlar çətin problemlərlə onların ağlını inkişaf etdirən imkanlar kimi rəftar edirlər. Təsadüfi deyil ki, bu cür uşaqlar məktəbdə daim inkişaf etməyə meyilli olurlar.
Əsas hissə buradadır: siz uşağın zehniyyətini ona nevrologiya oxudaraq dəyişə bilərsiniz, ama bunu diqqətlə seçin! Dvek bir təcrübə apardı, belə ki o, bir qrup uşağa müntəzəm təlimat  və digər bir qrupa isə bununla yanaşı neyronların insan həyatı boyu necə böyüməyə davam etməsi və hansı cəhdlər ilə böyüməyə təşviq oluna bilməsi haqqında məqalə verdi. Məqaləni oxuyan uşaqlar artan zehniyyəti mənimsəməyə meyilli və digər uşaqlardan daha müvəffəqiyyətli idilər. Bu, psixoloqların müştərilərini onların dünyagörüşünü artırmaq üçün kitab oxumağa məcbur edən biblioterapiyaya bənzər  nevroterapiyadır. Bizim nevrologiyaya inancımız bu tapıntılara  fikirlərimizi(bəlkə də beynimizi) dəyişmək bacarığı verir.
Dvek bu prizmadan baxışı illərdir ki, araşdırıb və inkişaf etdirib. Belə ki Dvek bu ideyanı genişləndirmək və uşaqların süni beyinlə oynamasını təmin edəcək bir kompüter proqramı var.
Dvekin işi haqqında əsas müzakirələr onun tapıntılarının etibarlılığını götür-qoy edir. Görəsən o, zəkanı(intellekti) məktəb tapşırıqlarından ayırmaq üçün kifayət qədər diqqətli olub mu? Psixoloqlar fikirləşirlər ki, zəka anadan gəlmə xüsusiyyətlərdən biridir və ağlımızın sabit bir hissəsidir. Bu haqda çoxlu təcrübələr bizə göstərdi ki, insan zəkası insan yaşı qədər çox dəyişmir. Lakin çox güman ki, onların araşdırmaları bir qədər təzadlı idi. Kimlərəsə “zəka testi” (İQ)  vermək onları sabit zehniyyəti mənimsəməyə təşviq edirdi. Dvekin işini daha dərindən öyrənmək üçün azad olmaq lazımdır və o zaman zəka müzakirə edir ki, görəsən siz insanlar haqqında uyğun fikir yaratmaq istəyirsinizmi?
Biz arzu edə bilərik ki, nevroloqlar zəkanın inkişaf edib, edə bilməməsi haqqında həlli tapmaq üçün eksperimentlər apara bilərlər. Ancaq əvvəlcə biz qərar verək ki,bu ekspermentlərdən uşaqlar üçün necə istifadə edə bilərik. Bu özü bir problemə çevrilir. Həm sabit,həm də inkişaf yönümlü zehnin yaxşı tərəfləri var, amma hər ikisi dəyər ölçülərinə və bu ölçüləri yaradan səbəblərə görə fərqlənirlər. Sizin oxuduğunuz hər məqalə bu və ya digər bir təsəvvürü  gücləndirir. Bu elmdə çıxılmaz vəziyyətdir və Dvek radikal bir fikir təklif edir: oxuduğun nevroloji  məqaləni yaşamaq istədiyin cəmiyyətə uyğun seç.
Burada mənim üçün əsas dərs budur ki, oxuduğunuz məqalənin hər kiçicik hissəsi sizi müəyyən zehniyyəti mənimsəməyə yönləndirir. Yalnız zəka və özfəaliyyət haqqında zehniyyət deyil, həmçinin şəxsi münasibətlər, vərdişlər, aqressiya, seksuallıq və s. Biz gərək nevrologiyanın bizə verdiyi bu fikirə  diqqət yetirək. Faktları göstərən Cnn,Fox və ya İndy media izləmək hər şey deyil, amma  onların hansı faktları seçib göstərdiyi və necə ekranlaşdırıldığı müəyyən dünya baxışın güclənməsinə kömək edir
Düşünmürəm ki,nevrogiyada bunlar belə qısa izahlı olsun. Hər şey bir yana ən əsası mən oğluma nə öyrədəcəyimi yaxşı bilirəm.

Müəllif:Joseph Dumit

Tərcümə:Seymur MustafaZadə

91 ŞƏRH

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