Günəş sistemi 4.5 milliard il əvvəl toz və qaz toplusundan əmələ gəlmişdir və Günəş dumanlığı adlanır.Duman əsas kütləsi Böyük partlayışdan bir qədər sonra əmələ gələn helium,hidrogen və digər ulduzların daxilində əmələ gələn  supernova partlayışları zamanı ətrafa yayılan daha ağır metallardan ibarət idi.Tədricən bu dumanlıqın mərkəzində helium və hidrogen sıxlaşdı və ilkin Günəş formalaşdı.Dumanlığın ətraf hissələrindəsə akkresiya hadisəsi baş verdi.Akkresiya-nisbətən kiçik hissəciklərin cazibə nəticəsində birləşməsidir və getdikcə daha da kütləsi artan bu ilkin planet-protoplanetlərin cazibəsi də artdığı üçün cəzb edilən hissəciklər,meteorlar daha planetin üzərinə düşürdü və bu da planeti daha da qızdırırdı.Yerin ilkin mərhələlərində isti olmasının daha  bir səbəbi yerin dərin qatlarında radioaktiv şüalanma idi.Bu cür yüksək temperaturda dəmir belə əriyirdi.Maye halda olmasına baxmayaraq dəmir sıxlığı yüksək olduğu üçün tədricən Yerin dərinliyinə gedirdi.Beləliklə mərkəzdə əsasən maye nikel və dəmirdən ibarət Yerin nüvəsi formalaşdı.Nüvənin formalaşması təxminən 100 million il çəkdi.Nüvənin tərkibində olan nikelin bir hissəsi kristallaşdı və daxili bərk nüvəni əmələ gətirdi(hazır ki dövrdə daxili nüvə Yer kütləsinin 1.7%-i,xaricisə 30% təşkil edir.Nüvənin mərkəzində temperatur 6000°С çatır.
      Yer bir müddət ərimiş vəziyyətdə idi və sonradan onun qabığı soyuyunca bərkləşdi.Kütləsi 0.1 Yer kütləsinə bərabər Mars böyüklüyündə kosmik cisimlə toqquşma nəticəsində Ay yarandı.Toqquşmanın qalıqları bir müddət yerin orbitində Saturn halqalarına bənzər mənzərə əmələ gətirirdilər,lakin sonradan bu qalıqların bəziləri açıq kosmosa,digərləri Yerin səthinə düşdülər.İlkin Ayın Yer ətrafında fırlanma radiusu 60.000 km idi(müqayisə üçün indi orbitin orta radiusu 384.000 km-dir).Vulkan püskürmələri nəticəsində atmosferdəki buxar kondesasiya edir,kometlərdəki buz əriyib hidrosferi əmələ gətirirdi və ilk dövrlərdə bu su qatı demək olar ki bütün planetin səthini örtürdü.
      Atmosfer formalaşdıqdan sonra yerə düşən kosmik cisimlərin miqdarı azaldı,daha doğrusu onların bir çoxu atmosferdə yanır və yerə çatmırdı.
      3.7 milliard il əvvəl ilk həyat əmələ gəldi(hətta,ən son elmi araşdırmalara görə bu dövrdə Yerdə artıq formalaşmış mürəkkəb kooperasiyalı müxtəlif orqanizmlərin yaşadığı güman edilir).
img09859a5f6ce760d0b28ce3c10932988ePangeya
      Təkamül prosesində Yerin atmosferini oksigenlə zənginləşdirən canlılar meydana gəldi.Lakin Yerdəki həyatın tarixində ilk milliard il yalnız kiçik mikroorqanizmlərə məxsusdur.Təxminən 580 million il əvvəl mürəkkəb çoxhüceyrəli həyat forması əmələ gəldi.Kembri dövründə Kembri partlayışı kimi tanınan bir çox növ və tiplərin əmələ gəlməsi həyatın sonrakı müxtəlifliyində böyük rol oynadı.6 million il əvvəlsə hominidlərdən hominini xətti ayrıldı və müasir insanın əcdadlarına başlanğıc verdi.
      Yerin geoloji tarixində dəfələrlə qitələr birləşib və ayrılıblar.İlk superkontinent Nuna 1.8-2 milliard il bundan əvvəl olub.Sonradan 1 milliard il əvvəl Rodiniya,550 million il əvvəl Pannotiya və nəhayət 300 million il əvvəl formalaşıb ,təxminən 180 million il əvəl yenidən parçalanan son superkontinent Pangeya olmuşdur.
      Bundan başqa Yer tarixi boyunca bir çox buzlaşma dövrləri ilə müşaiət olunmuşdur və son buzlaşma dövrü 110 min il əvvəl başlayıb 9 min il əvvəl bitmişdir.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

60 ŞƏRH

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