Molekulyar Sübut və Təkamül

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İnsan təkamülünün daha dəqiq başa düşməyimizi təmin edən bir qrup tapıntı tamamilə fərqli bir intizamdan, molekulyar biologiyadan gəldi. Molekulyar bioloqların 20 ildir etdiyi araşdırmalar, iki əhəmiyyətli tapıntını göstərdi. Birincisi yaşayan növlər içərisində insanın ən yaxın qohumunun şimpanzelər olduğunu, ikincisi müasir insanın nəsilinin düşünüldüyü qədər də qədim olmadığını, ancaq 200 min il əvvələ dayandığını sübut etdi. Birinci tapıntı, 1970-ci illərdən bəri molekulyar bioloqların müasir insanların və şimpanzelərin DNTləri və amin turşuları üzərində etdikləri araşdırmalara dayanır. İstifadə edilən DNT hibritləşməsi üsulu, insan və şimpanze genlərinin 98,5%; nisbətində eyni olduğunu göstərdi.

 

 

İkinci tapıntı isə 1980-ci illərdə dünya üzərindəki fərqli insan populyasiyalarından nümunələr götürərək edilən mitoxondriyal DNT (MTDNT) araşdırması nəticəsində, MTDNT’dəki ən çox müxtəlifliyin (variasiyanın) Afrikada olduğunu göstərdi. Canlı icmalarının dəyişmə, mutasiya adı verilən, irsi material DNT-də yaranan fərqliliklərdir.Bir populyasiyanın gen hovuzunda, eyni növün başqa populyasiyalarına nisbətən çox sayda müxtəliflikdə cəmlənməsi üçün, bu populyasiyanın daha uzun müddətli təkamül keçirməs lazımdır. Ən çox müxtəlifliyə Afrikalıların gen hovuzunda qarşılandığına görə, Afrikalılar yaşayan insan cəmiyətlərinin mənşəyini meydana gətirir.

 

İnsanın təkamülüylə bağlı problemlər yoxdur? Əlbəttə bütün digər canlıların təkamül prosesinin başa düşülməsində olduğu kimi, insanın təkamülündə də bəzi problemlər var. Ancaq, təkamül biologiyası üzərində çalışan heç bir elm adamının ya da paleoantropoloqların, insanların təkamülünə bağlı şübhəsi yoxdur. Işıqlandırılması lazım olan nöqtələr təkamülün necə irəlilədiyini dair olan nöqtələrdir.Neandertallarla əlaqədar 1997-ci ildə edilən araşdırma bu problemlərə yaxşı bir nümunədir. Neandertal fosilləri üzərində çalışan paleoantropoloqlar, bu canlıların, müasir insanın ortaq atadan formalaşmış bir alt növümü, yoxsa tamamilə müstəqil bir növmü olduqları mövzusunda illərcə razılaşmamışdılar.

 

Ancaq Almaniya və ABŞ-dakı iki müstəqil qrupun Neandertalların mitoxondriyal DNTsi üzərində etdikləri çalışmalar, neadertalların və müasir insanların bir-birləriylə tez heç çütləşmədən, ayrı-ayrı təkamül keçirən növlər olduqlarını göstərmişdir. Tarixən bəzi problemlər də, insanın təkamül prosesini öyrənmək istəyən kəslərin başını qarışdıra bilər. İlk dəfə 19. əsrin sonunda tapılan Homo erectus fosilinə dik yeriyən insan mənasında bu ad verilmişdir. Ancaq, daha sonra tapılan Homoerectusun çox qədim hominid fosilləri Homoerectusun iki ayaqlı ilk hominid olmadığını ortaya qoymuşdur.

 

Tapıntara adlar vermək insanların təşəbbüsündə olan bir şeydir. Bir qalıq tapıntıya verilən adın, bioloji olaraq bir yerdə təsnif qrupların dəyişməsi, yenə də insanların etdiyi şeylərdir. Bunların heç birisi təkamülün səhv ya da olmadığını göstərməz. Elm bir müddətdir. Daha doğrunun, köhnənin yerini alması ancaq daha çox məlumatın başa düşülməsi və üst-üstə qoyulmasıyla mümkün olur.

 

89 ŞƏRH

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