Yeni tapılmış məktub Kamyu ilə Sartr arasındakı dostluğa dair müəyyən faktları ortaya çıxardı

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Yeni tapılmış məktub Kamyu ilə Sartr arasındakı dostluğa dair müəyyən faktları ortaya çıxardı


Fransa’nın XX əsrə damğasını vurmuş ən önəmli filosoflarından Jean-Paul Sartre ve Albert Camus arasındaki dostluğun bir müddət sonra müəyyən anlaşılmazlıqlar səbəbiyə bitdiyi bir çox fəlsəfə oxucularına məlumdur.

Mövcudluq (ekzistensializm) cərəyanının bu iki əhəmiyyətli filozofunun dostluğunu bitirən mübahisələrdən bir neçə ay əvvəl Kamyu tərəfindən Sartra göndərilən bir məktub, söz mövzusu ayrılıqdan əvvəl bu iki şəxsiyyətin ən yaxın dostlar olduğunu göstərir.

Independentdə yayınlanan xəbərdə, mütəxəssislərin, tarixləndirilməmiş bu məktubun 1951-ci il baharında yazılmış olduğuna inandıqları ifadə edilir.

“Sevgili Sartr” sözləri ilə başlayan Kamyu imzalı məktub, “Əlini sıxaram,” ifadəsiylə bitir. L’Etranger’ın (Yad) Nobel mükafatlı yazıçısı, məktubda Sartra yeni oyununda rol alması üçün Aminda Valls adlı bir aktrisanı tövsiyə edir. Camus, eyni zamanda Fransız teatrının ulduzlarından biri olan Maria Casarès’in də dostu olan aktrisanı “İspan bir Cümhiriyyətçi” və “insanlığın möcüzəsi” kimi təyin edir.

Söz mövzusu olan məktub, Parisin bu iki məşhur intellektualının bir-birləriylə olan yazışmalarına dair son illərdə kəşf edilən ilk nümunə deyil.

 Ötən illərdə ortaya çıxan, 1940-cı illərdə Kamyu tərəfindən Sartra yazılmış qısa bir qeyd də XX əsrin bu ən diqqət çəkici dostluqlarından birinə işıq tutmuşdu. 

İki yazıçı da eyni çap mərkəzi ilə işləmişdi və ikisi də Nobel mükafatına layiq görülmüşdü. Kamyu, 1957-ci ildə qazandığı bu mükafatı qəbul etdi. Sartr isə eyni mükafatı yeddi il sonra nəzakətlə rədd etdi. Məşhur filosofun bu mükafatı qəbul etməməsinin səbəbi olaraq, Kamyu’nun ondan daha əvvəl qazanmış olmasının özü üçün bir alçaltma kimi gördüyü də iddia edilir. Digər mənbələrdə isə  Sartrın Nobeli qəbul etməməsi özünün ədəbiyyatçı deyil filosof kimi yaddaşlara həkk olunmasını istəməsiydi.


İki filosofun, Soyuq müharibənin ortalarında ayrı düşməyə başladığı, zaman içərisində fəlsəfə və siyasət üzərində dalaşdıqları bilinir.

Kamyu, bu məktubdan yalnız bir neçə ay sonra Sartr tərəfindən sərt bir şəkildə tənqid olunan L’Homme révolté’u (Üsyankar İnsan) nəşr etdirir. Bu tənqid də onların ayrı düşməsinin kəskinləşməsinə səbəb olur.

Sartr, yazdığı bir açıq məktubda belə deyir: “Sevgili Kamyu, bizimki asan dostluqlardan biri deyildi, amma onun üçün darıxacağam.” Kamyu’nu ayrıca “fəlsəfi baxımdan qeyri-kafi” olmaqda ittiham edən Sartr, daha sonra filosofla olan ünsiyyətini də böyük ölçüdə kəsir.




Dövrün ən məşhur iki filosofunun 1952-ci ildəki bu dalaşması, Parisin intellektual mühitinin də ikiyə bölünməsinə səbəb olur.

Bu iki intellektual daha sonra biriləriylə heç danışmasa da, aralarındakı anlaşılmazlığı cəmiyyətə açıq bir şəkildə müzakirə etməyə davam etdilər, ta ki Kamyu 1960-ci ildə həyatını itirənə qədər.

Kamyunun ölümünün üzərindən 15 il keçdikdən sonra, o zamanlar 70 yaşında olan Sartr; Les Temps’le etdiyi bir müsahibədə Kamyu ilə olan əlaqəsi soruşulduğunda “Kamyu deyəsən mənim son ən yaxşı dostum idi.” cavabını verir.

Mənbə: bonpurloryan.com

Müəllif: Hikmət Həmdullayev

87 ŞƏRH

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