Gecə Əslində Qaranlıq deyil: Olbers Paradoksu

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20-ci əsrə qədər əlimizdə kainat haqqında kifayət qədər məlumat olmadığından, kainatın dəyişməz və əbədi olduğuna dair geniş yayılmış bir fikir var idi. Ancaq bu dəyişməz və sonsuz kainat fikri öz içində qəribə bir paradoks saxlayırdı. Haradasa 500 il kimi uzun bir müddətdə bu paradoks, bir çox astronomun, elm insanının və hətta Edqar Allan Poe kimi bir şairin belə uzun müddət üzərində düşünməsinə səbəb olmuşdu. Paradoksun 500 illik bir keçmişi olsa da, Alman həkim və astronom Haynrix Olbers, 1823-də mövzu ilə bağlı yazdığı məqalə ilə paradoksu elmi mübahisələrin içinə daşıyaraq bu gün öz adı ilə anılmasına da təmin etdi.

Paradoks sadəcə gecənin nə üçün qaranlıq olduğunu soruşurdu. Olbers paradoksuna görə kainat hərəkətsiz və sonsuzdursa, göy üzündə baxdığımız hər bir yerdə mütləq bir ulduz və ya hər hansı bir işıq mənbəyi olmalıydı. Sonsuz kainatda saysız-hesabsız ulduzun işığı ilə göy üzünün örtülmüş olması lazım idi. Bu halda gecələr göy üzündə qaranlıq bir nöqtə belə qalmayacaq, gecə də gündüz kimi aydınlıq olacaqdı.
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Ancaq vəziyyət heç də belə görünmürdü. Çünki gecə, qaranlıq idi. Bu paradoks 20-ci əsrə qədər hakim olan dəyişməz-sonsuz kainat fikrini təhlükəyə salırdı. Dəyişməz-sonsuz kainat fikrinin tərəfdarları, problemlə başa çıxmaq üçün fikirlər irəli sürdülər. Məsələn, bir fərziyyəyə görə, çox uzaqdakı ulduzların işığı, o qədər məsafə keçərkən kosmosdakı digər göy cisimləri (qaz və toz buludları) tərəfindən udulur və bu səbəblə bütün göy üzünün gecələri işıqlı olmasına maneçilik törədirdi. Bundan başqa, çox uzaqdakı ulduzların Dünyaya olan yolculuğunda işıqlarının getdikcə azalması üzündən gecənin nə üçün qaranlıq olduğu paradoksu dəyişməz-sonsuz kainat fikrinə zərər verilmədən həll etmək olurdu. Yenə başqa bir versiyada isə ulduzların ömürləri əbədi olmadığından, kainatda daim ölən və sönmüş ulduzların gecənin qaranlıq olmasına yol açdığı hesab edilirdi.

Ancaq böyük problemlər var. Məsələn, ulduzların işığını əmən qaz və toz buludlarının sonsuz müddətdə o qədər çox enerji yüklənmiş olacaqdılar ki, ulduzlar kimi işıq yayacaqdılar. Yəni gecələrimiz yenə işıqlı keçməliydi. Ulduzların qısa ömür müddəti də məna ifadə etmirdi, çünki sonsuz zaman və sonsuz ulduz vardı. Bütün bu əsassız fikirlər yalnız qısa sayıla biləcək zamanda qəbul etdildilər. Çünki 20-ci əsr ilə birlikdə kainatın əbədi və dəyişməz olduğu fikri sanki dağılacaqdı.

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Göy üzünün gecələr tam aydınlıq olmamasının yeganə səbəbi kainatın bir başlanğıcının olması və ulduzların sonsuz sayda olmamasıdır.


20-ci Əsrdə Olbers Paradoksuna son verəcək və nəhayət qənaət bəxş edən bir həll tapa biləcək böyük kəşfi bu gün astronomiyayla az çox əlaqəsi olan hər kəsin bildiyi elm insanı Edvin Habbl etmişdi. Onun rəhbərliyi altındakı Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsi, bizlərə sadə kainatın 20-ci əsrə qədər düşünüldüyü kimi əzəli və statik olmadığını deyirdi. Yəni onun dediyi kimi kainat sonsuzdur, gecə göy üzündə baxdığımız hər bir nöqtədə bir işıq mənbəyi olmaq məcburiyyətində deyil və bu səbəblə gecə qaranlıqdır. Beləliklə, Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsi ilə birlikdə Olbers Paradoksuna dəqiq bir cavab tapıla bilmiş görünürdü.

Ancaq elmdə hər cavab, yeni suallar və ya paradokslar doğurar. Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsi də Olbers Paradoksuna dəqiq və əllə tutular bir açıqlama gətirmişdi ancaq yeni bir paradoks daha gəlmişdi. Nəzəriyyəyə görə partlayışın ilk anlarında kainatdakı bütün nöqtələr yüksək istilik və işıqla dolu idi. Bu halda o zamanlar kainatın hər nöqtəsinə nüfuz etmiş işıqları hələ də görməli deyilmiydik? O halda gecə niyə qaranlıq idi? Əslində buna tam olaraq paradoks demək olmaz, çünki heç vaxt bir pradoks olaraq görülmədi. Bu problem, Habbl Paradoksu kimi bir ad alacaq qədər uzun bir müddət keçmədən tez açıqlandı. Çünki sualın cavabı zatən Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsinin içində mövcuddur. Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsi Qırmızıya Sürüşmə adı verilən bir fenomenlə bu problemi cavablaya bilir.

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Böyük Partlayış Nəzəriyyəsinə görə, kainatın ilk anlarında bütün kainatı dolduran işıq, kainatın davamlı genişlənməsindən dolayı qırmızıya sürüşüb. Yəni kainatın ilk vaxtlarında işığın əsil dalğa boyundan təxminən 1.100 dəfə qırmızı sürüşərək mikrodalğalı ölçülərinə qədər düşdü. Bu da demək olur ki, əslində hazırda baxdığımız səma kainatın ilk vaxtlarında işığın qalıqları ilə doludur və par-par parıldayır. Onda bütün bunlara baxmayaraq gecə niyə hələ də qaranlıqdır?

Az öncə bəhs etdiyimiz Böyük Partlamadan qalan işığın dalğa boyunun isə insanın görə biləcəyi dalğa boyundan çox uzaqda olması səbəbilə gecə göy üzünə baxanda yalnız ulduzların görünən işığını görürük. Ancaq birbaşa gözlərimizlə görməsək belə, texnologiya sayəsində aparılan süni gözlərlə bu işığı görə bilirik. Belə ki, əvvəl COBE, sonra isə WMAP Kosmos Teleskopu adlı mikrodalğalı şüa qəbul edici peyklər vasitəsilə göy üzünü araşdıraraq Böyük Partlama anında ortaya çıxan ancaq sonradan qırmızıya sürüşmüş işıqla birlikdə bilinən kainatın bütün bir xəritəsini çıxarabildik. Bu xəritəylə birlikdə qaranlıq zənn etdiyimiz göy üzünün əslində “ən azından mikrodalğa boyunda” par-par olduğu sübut etmiş olduq.

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