Ana bətnində inkişaf

88
Full-term foetus. Computer artwork of a full-term foetus in its mother's uterus (womb).
                5-6 yaşlarında necə əmələ gəldiyimiz haqqında bizə deyilən yalanları çoxdan “ifşa” etmişik, yeniyetmə yaşlarında doğulmağımızın hansı ümumi prosesin nəticəsi olduğunu öyrənmişik. Ancaq inandırım sizi bu proses- cinsi əlaqə ümumi gedən proseslərin heç bir faizi də deyil. Cinsi akta qədər cinsi yetişkənliyə çatmadan tutmuş akt öncəsi hüceyrələrin hazırlanması və bədənimizin aktı həyata keçirəcək kökə düşməsi üçün o qədər proseslər ardıcıllığı lazımdır ki, yatma, durma oxu öyrən. Ancaq bunu qoyaq bir qırağa, çünki bu barədə (mayalanmayaqədərki proseslər) də ayrıca məqaləmiz olacaq.
 
 
 
                Mayalanmadan sonrakı inkişaf prosesi 2 dövrə bölünür:
 
1.       Bətndaxili və ya prenatal ontogenez.
2.       Bətnxarici və ya postnatal ontogenez.
 
Prenatal ontogenezi embriologiya tədqiq edir. Embriologiya həm biologiyada təkamülün tədqiqində həm də tibbdə xəstəliklərin öncədən təyini və müalicəsində (son illər isə CRİSPR layihəsi vasitəsilə genetik problemlərin aradan götürülməsində) çox önəmli rol oynayır
 
Prenatal ontogenez özü də 2 mərhələyə ayrılır:
 
1)      Rüşeym- embrion dövrü. İlk iki ayı əhatə edir. Bu vaxt orqanların mayası qoyulur.
2)      Fetal dövr. 3-9 ayları əhatə edir, doğuşla başa çatır. Orqanların formalaşma prosesləri gedir.
 
 
Mayalanma uşaqlıq borularında yumurtahüceyrə və spermatazoidin bir-birinə qovuşmasıdır. Qovuşub olurlar ziqot. Ziqot bir hüceyrədən ibarət olsa da,  öz içində həm qadın cinsi hüceyrəsinin, həm də kişi cinsi hüceyrəsinin məlumatını daşıyır. Ziqot başlanğıc mərhələdə bölünməyə başlayır. Dəfələrlə bölünmədən sonra əmələ gələn hüceyrələr toplusu moruğa bənzədiyi üçün morula adlanır. Bölünmə blastulanın əmələ gəlməsi ilə qurtarır. 1 həftəlik embrio xarici qat trofoblast və daxili qat embrioblast adlanır. Trofoblastın xarici qatı xovlarla örtüldüyünə görə onu xovlu qişa və ya xorion adlandırırlar. Xorion və uşaqlığın selikli qişasının bir-birinə baxan səthlərindən cift- placenta inkişaf edir.
 
Hamiləliyin ikinci həftəsində tək qatlı rüşeym düyünün- embrioblastın differensiasiyası  nəticəsində rüşeym üç qata malik olur.
 
1)      Xarici qat- ektoderma
2)      Orta qat- mezoderma
3)      Daxili qat-entoderma
 
 
 
 

 

Ektoderma özü də iki hissəyə ayrılır
1)      Dəri ektoderması. Bu qatdan
a)      dərinin epitel qatı
b)      dəri törəmələri ( tük, dırnaq, tər, süd, piy vəziləri)
c)       ağız suyu vəziləri
d)      ağız boşluğunun selikli qişasının bir hissəsi
e)      diş minası
f)       anus kanalı, sidik axarları və toxum daşıyıcı axacaqların selikli qişası inkişaf edir.
2)      Sinir ektoderması. Bu qatdan isə
a)      Sinir sistemi
b)      Duyğu orqanları inkişaf edir.
Entodermadan isə  qalxana bənzər, qalxanabənzər ətraf, timus vəziləri, adenohipofiz, tənəffüs və həzm sisteminin xarici mühitlə əlaqələnməyən hissələri inkişaf edir.
 
 
Ağciyər və balığın hava kisələri arasında əlaqə:
 
 
 
Tənəffüs sistemi ilə həzm sisteminin eyni qatdan başlaması, hətta tənəffüs sisteminin ilk bağırsaqdan əmələ gəlməsi sizə qəribə gələ bilər. Ancaq buna biogenetik qanun və ya embrional paralelizm cəhətdən baxdıqda tamamilə qanunauyğun olduğu anlaşılır. Bu qanuna görə hər bir canlı öz ontogenezində (fərdi inkişafında)  filogenezini (tarixi inkişafını) təkrarlayır. Əksər sümüklü balıqlarda hava kisəsi adlanan törəmə vardır. Bu orqan balığın suyun hansı səviyyəsində qalacağını Arximed qüvvəsini idarə etməklə müəyyənləşdirir. Belə ki, hava kisəsini genişləndirdikdə xüsusi çəki azalır və yuxarı qalxır, daraltdıqda isə əksinə olur.  Hava kisəsi bağırsaqdan inkişaf edir. Təkamül prosesində bu törəmə ağciyərə başlanğıc vermişdir. Biz ağciyərin insanda da mənşəyini öyrənməklə bu qanunun bir daha təsdiqini tapdığını görürük.
 
                Mezoderma müəyyən inkişaf proseslərindən sonra skelet əzələləri, skelet və xüsusi dəriyə, sidik-cinsiyyət sisteminə və seroz kisələrə(bir sıra orqanları içində saxlayan kisələr) və s. başlanğıc verir.
                9 həftəlik embrionda artıq insana oxşar əlamətlər əmələ gəlməyə başlayır. Bununla da fetal dövr- döl dövrü başlayır və 3-cü aydan hamiləliyin sonuna qədər orqanların formalaşması davam edir.
                Yeni doğulan körpələrin kütləsi orta hesabla 3000-3200 qram, uzunluğu isə 48-52 sm olur.
 
Bu insanın bətndaxili inkişafına çox  qısa baxış idi. Gələcəkdə daha ətraflı şəkildə toxunacağıq.
 İşlənilən latınca və yunanca sözlərin qısa lüğəti
pre-öncə
natalis – doğulma, doğum günü
post-sonra
embrio-rüşeym
foetus-döl
morula-moruqcuq(morus-moruq)
blastos-maya
blastula-  mayacıq
trophe-qida
placenta-qabıq, qəlib
ecto-xarici
ento-enteron-bağırsaq
meso-orta
derma-dəri
 
 
 
Hazırladı: Gündüz Osmanlı
Mənbə: İnsan Anatomiyası l – V.B. Şadlınski, Ş.İ Qasımov, N.T. Mövsümov
                Zoologiya – Rauf Sultanov, Elsevər Əsədov, Könül Mahmudova və s. Red. Rauf Hacıyev
                https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gas_bladder
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histogenesis

 

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