XVIII əsr astronomiyası

97

 

Astronomiya qədim və qədim olduğu qədər də dərin bir elmdir. Keçmişə baxdıqda dövrlər arası astronomiya inkişaf və dinamikliyini daha da yüksəltmə prosesi keçirdib. Zamanla yeni addımlar atan astronomiya elmi günümüzdə modern bir sahəyə çevrilmişdir. Bu sahədə müasir addımlar 18-ci əsrdə atılmağa başladı.

Yorulmaz kometa axtarıcısı kimi tanınan astronom Şarl Messye (Charles Messier) kosmik obyektlərin axtarışını asanlaşdırmaq üçün 1781-ci ildə Messye kataloqunu tərtib etdi. Bu kataloqdakı obyektlər M hərfi ilə başlayırdı (M13, M67 və s) və ümumilikdə 103 obyekti əhatə edirdi. Bu obyektlərin çox hissəsi məhz dumanlıqlar idi, o zaman belə şəkilləri güclü astroqraflar teleskoplar vasitəsilə əldə edə bilirdi. Bu kataloqda həmçinin ulduz topluları da çox idi. Məhz ulduz topluları ulduz astronomiyasının və kosmologiyanın inkişafına təməl qoydu.

Bu real ulduz topluları özlüyündə çox sayda ulduzu birləşdirirdi. Qarşılıqlı cazibə qüvvəsinin təsiri ilə bu topluda olan ulduzlar mərkəzdə minlərlə ulduzdan ibarət idi. O zaman belə kataloq astronomlara çox kömək edirdi. Hətta səmanı belə dəqiqliklə müşahidə edə bilməyən astronomlar üçün bu kataloq ilkin tanışlıq və sonradan səmada axtarış üçün çox kömək edirdi.

At başı dumanlığı/19-cu əsrdə və bu günlərdə
O zaman, planetar dumanlıqların kimyəvi tərkibi belə bölünmüşdü: əgər biz Hidrogeni 1000 əmsalı qədər götürsək, o zaman helium 100, karbon 0.6, oksigen 0.25, azot 0.2, neon 0.01, kükürd 0.036, xlor 0.002, arqon 0.0015 və ftor 0.0001 təşkil edərdi.
Orion dumanlığı / 19-cu əsrdə və bu günlətdə
Planetar dumanlıqlar – bu müxtəlif növ diffuz maddələrin toplusudur. Belə dumanlıqlar emission skeptra malik və yönləndirilmiş formaya sahib olurlar. Belə dumanlıq tipinə yuxarıda göstərilən “Orion dumanlığını” misal çəkmək olar. Orion ulduzunu əhatə edən bu dumanlıq şəkildə görsəndiyi kimi bürcün sağ hissəsini tutur. Belə dumanlıqların işıqlandırılması məhz qaz-toz buludlarını öz şüaları ilə işıqlandıran ulduzun “əməyidir”
Bu struktura oxşar dumanlıq kimi Cənubi Amerika dumanlığını da göstərmək olar. Belə şəkillər adətən davamlı çəkilişlərdən sonra alınır. Açığı, bu texnologiya indiyədək qalıb. Sadəcə indilərdə biz bu şəkilləri daha güclü teleskoplarla əldə edə bilirik və daha keyfiyyətli nəticə alırıq.
Cənubi Amerika dumanlığı / 19-cu əsrdə və bu günlərdə
Həmçinin kataloqda qlobulalar haqqında informasiyalar var idi. Qlobulalar səmada işıqlı dumanlıqlar yanında balaca dairəvi tünd obyektlər kimi nəzərə çarpırdı. Qlobulaların diametri 4 000-35 000 a.v. diametrində olur və protoulduz kimi qələmə verilirdi. Yəni yeni yaranacaq ulduzların beşiyi kimi tanınırdı.
Dumanlıqların köhnə və yeni şəkillərini fərqləndirən alimlər belə qənaətə gəlmişdilər ki, dumanlıqlar sistematik olaraq genişlənir və genişlənmə sürəti 1000 km/saniyə təşkil edir.
Hazırladı: Alik Alekberov
Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva (25.11.2017)

97 ŞƏRH

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