AUTİZM NƏDİR?

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Autizm olaraq da tanınan Autustik Spekturum Pozğunluğu (Autism Spectrum Disorder) (ASD) doğum zamanı və ya doğulduqdan qısa zaman sonra başlayır və ömür boyu davam edir. Autizm fərdin öyrənmə qabiliyyətinə və ətrafındakı digər insanlarla münasibətinə təsir edir.
Əlamətləri:
a) ictimai qarşılıqlı təsirdə və ünsiyyətdə zəiflik.
b) dar mənimsəmə qabiliyyəti, eyni şeyləri təkrarlayan davranış.
Autizmi olan iki nəfər bir-birinə bənzəmir. Autizmi olan şəxslərin zehni qabiliyyətləri, yaşları, davranışları, ünsiyyət bacarıqları geniş bir çeşitlilik göstərir.
Autizmin Tarixi.
Autizm sözü Yunanca “özü” mənasına gələn “autos” sözündən əmələ gəlib. Tarixin hər dövründə autizmli insanlar olsada xəstəlik 20-ci yüzilliyin ortalarından məşhurlaşmağa başlayıb. Günümüzdəki autizm anlayışı 1940-cı illərin əvvəllərində Leo Kanner (1943) və Dr. Hans Asperger (1944) adlı alimlərin araşdırmaları nəticəsində formalaşıb. Yazılarında ikisi də birlikdə işlədikləri uşaqlarda olan oxşar xüsusiyyətlərdən danışıb. Bugünkü anlayışımızı formalaşdıran digər önəmli alimlər isə Lorna Wing və Chiristopher Gillbergdir. Temple Grandin, Luke Jackson və digər autizmli insanların həyat hekayələri xəstəliklə əlaqədar biliklərimizin təkminləşməsinə kömək olmuşdur.

Autizm diaqnozu necə qoyulur?
Avstraliyada çox vaxt Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5-ci nəşrindən (DSM-5) istifadə edərək autizm diaqnozu qoyurlar. Ümumiyətlə, bir uşaq həkimi və ya mütəxəssislərdən ibarət bir komandanın gəldiyi nəticələr əsasında xəstəyə autizm diaqnozu qoyula bilər.
Autizm nə qədər yayılıb?
Avstraliyada edilən ən son araşdırmaların nəticəsi (MacDermott et al., 2007) hər il 6 ilə, 12 yaş arasında, 160 uşaqdan birində autizm xəstəliyinin olduğunu göstərir. Autizm diaqnozu qoyulan oğlanların sayı qızlardan daha çoxdur.
Səbəbləri:
Autizmin elmə məlum olan bir səbəbi yoxdur. Araşdırmalar nəticəsində (doğuşdan əvvəl və sonra) genetik və mühit şəraitinin autizmə səbəb ola biləcəyi təxmin edilir. Araşdırmalar həm də autizmin hər insan üçün fərqli səbəblərdən ola biləcəyini iddia edir.

Autizmin Əsas Xüsusiyyətləri:
Ünsiyyət
İstək və ehtiyaclarını ifadə edə bilmək və başqalarını anlamaq qabiliyyətinə “ünsiyyət” deyilir. Autizmli insanlar danışa bilər, ancaq:
başqalarını anlamaqda əziyyət çəkərlər.
sualları çox dar mənaları ilə cavablayarlar.
sözlərin məcazi mənalarını və çoxmənalı sözlərin bir neçə mənasını anlamaqda çətinlik çəkərlər.
söhbətə başlamaqda və söhbəti davam etdirməkdə çətinlik çəkərlər.
sözləri və ifadələri tez-tez təkrar edərlər.
Ünsiyyət çətinlikləri xəstənin ictimai həyatına da təsir edir.
Sosiallaşmaq
Sosiallaşmaq fərdin bir qrup içində digər bir insanla necə bir əlaqədə olduğuna deyilir.
Autizmi olan insanlar ictimai qanunları anlamaqda çətinlik çəkir, tək oynamağı sevirlər, bir oyuna və ya fəaliyyətə qatılmağı bilməzlər, bəzən kobud belə görünə bilərlər.
Davranış
Autizmi olan insanlar qəlibləşmiş və təkrarlanan davranışa sahibdirlər. Autizmi olan insanlar:
dəyişiklikləri bəyənmirlər.
bir mövzuya çox böyük maraq göstərirlər.
qəribə bədən hərəkətləri edərlər.
Sensor Emal (Sensory Processing)
Sensor emal beyinin qavrayış sensor sistemlərindən gələn informasiyaları necə aldığını və istifadə etdiyini izah edən termindir. Sensor emal uşağın evdəki, məktəbdəki və cəmiyyət içindəki fərqlilikləri öyrənmək və davranma bacarıqlarına təsir edir. Autizmli insanlar aşağıdakılara qarşı həddindən artıq və ya çox az reaksiya verir.
səs
toxunma
vizual informasiya
qoxular
dad
hərəkət
yaxınlıqdakı insan və ya cisimlər

Öyrənmə Profili
Autizmli hər uşaq fərqlidir, ancaq aşağıdakı hallar ən çox çətinlik çəkdikləri hallardır.
dəyişiklik
diqqət və konsentrasiya
ictimai əlaqələr
əzələ və hərəkət kordinasiyası
bir şeyə diqqətlə baxmaq
bir şeyin mənasını anlamaq
bir yerdə öyrəndiyi bacarıqların başqa bir yerdə tətbiqi
duyğusal emal
sıralamaq ( hadisələrin sırasını anlamaq )
planlamaq və orqanizasiya
motivasiya

Autizmli olan şagirdlərin güclü olduqları bir çox nöqtə var.
yaxşı yaddaş
qaydaları izləmək
bəzi mövzularda motivasiya və qüvvətli bilik
vizual öyrənmək qabiliyyəti
dürüstlük
Bu güclü və çətinlik çəkilən xüsusiyyətlər autizmli şagirdlərin enişli-yoxuşlu bir öyrənmə bacarığına sahib olduqlarını göstərir. Yaxşı bir təhsil strategiyası çətinlik çəkilən anları gücləndirmək yerinə, güclü olan xüsusiyyətləri inkişaf etdirməyə istiqamətlənir.
Mənbələr:
Asperger, H. (1944) Translated & annotated, Frith, U. (1991). ‘Autistic psychopathy’ in
childhood, In U. Frith (1991), Autism and Asperger syndrome (sayfa 37–92). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.
MacDermott, S., Williams, K., Ridley, G., Glasson, E. & Wray, J. (2007). The prevalence of
autism in Australia. Can it be established from existing data? A report for the Australian
Advisory Board on Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved January 23, 2008,: www.autismaus.com.au internet saytı.

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