Hamımızın Mənşəyi Afrikadı

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Afrikadan çıxan Homo sapiens dünyanı fəth etdi. Bir çox araşdırma qrupu, atalarımızın nə zaman və hansı yollarla dünyanın digər yerlərinə köç etdiyini araşdırdı. Bəlkə də bu böyük gəzintidən iqlim dəyişiklikləri cavabdehdir.

Honoluludakı Havay Univeristetindən olan Axel Timmermann və Tobias Friedrich “Nature” akademik jurnalında nəşr etdikləri çalışmaya görə dünya orbitindəki dəyişikliklər keçmiş 125.000 il içərisində iqlim dalğalanmalarına səbəb olub. Bu dalğalanmalar isə dəniz səviyyəsinin güclü bir şəkildə yüksəlib alçalmasına yol açmışdır. Bir neçə on min il əvvəlki zamanlarda Afrikalı olmayan müasir insanların birbaşa əcdadları Afrikadan dünyanın ətrafına köç etdilər. Ayrıca genetiklərdən ibarət 3 ayrı qrup “Nature” jurnalında bu köç yollarına dair aktual məlumatları dərc etdirdilər. Bununla bağlı geniş əhatəli gen analizləri etdilər.

Hələ də ən güclü şəkildə müdafiə edilən Afrikadan çıxış hipotezinə görə, Homo növü Afrikadan dünyanın qalan bölgələrinə yayılmışdır. Bu hipotezə görə ilk olaraq Homoerectus 1,9 milyon il əvvəl Asiya və Afrikaya çatdı. Sonra isə Avrupadakılar Neandertallara, Afrikadakılar isə müasir insanlara təkamül etmişdir. Daha sonra da bu müasir insanlar 60.000 il ilə 70.000 il əvvəl Afrika qitəsini tərk etdilər və dünyanın digər bölgələrinə köç etdilər. Müasir insanlar dünyanın digər qitələrindəki insan növləri ilə genetik olaraq biraz qarışdılar. Məsələn Avropada Neandertallarla. Bu etibarlı hipotez görə, nəticə olaraq qısa bir zaman içində digər insan növlərinin nəsli tükəndi və bugün yaşayan bütün Afrikalı olmayanlar tək bir immiqrant populyasiyasının ardıcılları mövqeyinə çatdılar.

Başqa  bir hipotezə görə isə, ilk müasir insanlar öz vətənləri Afrikanı təxminən 120.000 il əvvəl tərk etdilər və cənub-şərq Asiya ilə Avstraliyaya yerləşdilər. Bundan sonra Avrasiyaya isə Şərq Aralıq dənizi sahillərindən gələn ikinci immiqrant qrup yerləşdi. Edilən işlər iki hipotezdən hansının doğru olduğunu hələ cavablandırmayıb, lakin köçlərə dair yeni detallar əldə edilib. Harvard Medical School’dan elm adamı David Reich, daha əvvəlki araşdırmalarda kifayət qədər göz qarşısında olan 142 populyasiydan 300 fərdə aid genomları incələdi. Reich və onun çalışma qrupu, araşdırmalar istiqamətində nəticə olaraq bu gün yaşayan insanların təxminən 200.000 il əvvəl Afrikada ortaya çıxdığını düşünürlər. Bir qisim Afrika qitəsini tərk etdi, daha sonra şərq və qərbi Avrasiya olmaq üzrə 2 ayrı qrupa bölündülər. Qərbi Avrasyadakılar daha sonra şərqi Asiya və Avstraliyaya yerləşdilər. Bu hipiotezə görə Avstraliya və Papua Yeni Qvineyadakı bugünkü insanlar bu qrupun üzvləridir.

                                                Aborigenlərdəki Ovsunlayıcı Genetik Müxtəliflik

Kopenhagen Universitetindən olan araşdırmaçı Eske Willerslev etdiyi analizlərə görə, Homo sapiens’in Afrikanın xaricinə bir dəfə köç etmişdir. Ümumi 83 Aborigen və 25 Yeni Qvineyalıya aid genləri analiz etdilər. Çalışmaya görə bu qrup təxminən 58.000 il əvvəl Avropalı və Asiyalılardan ayrıldı. Təxminən 10.000 il əvvəl reallaşan iki populyasiyanın məkan ayrılığının əvvəlində, təxminən 37.000 il əvvəl, Aborigenlər və Papua Yeni Qivineya soy xəttləri bir-birlərindən ayrılmışdır. Bu alt qrupların ortaya çıxması böyük ehtimalla Avstraliya qitəsi daxilində çöllərin təbii maneələr meydana gətirməsiylə reallaşmışdır.

Kopenhagen Universitetindən Anna Sapfo Malaspinos; “Avstraliyalı Aborigenlər genetik müxtəlifliyi heyrət edicidir. Bəlkə qitəyə çox uzun zaman əvvəl yerləşdikləri üçün, qruplardan çöl bölgələrindəki cənub qərbli Avstraliyalıları, genetik olaraq şimal şərqlilərdən daha qəti olaraq ayırt edə bilərlər. Nümunə olaraq bir qitə üzərindəki Amerika yerliləri və Sibiryalılardır. “deyir. Qrup gen analizlərində nəsli tükənmiş insan qruplarından olan Denisovanlar və ayrıca indiyə qədər tanınmayan qruplar da tapmışdlar.

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