İnsandan başqa hansı canlılarda mensturasiya (aybaşı) müşahidə edilir?

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Menstruasiya uşaqlığın endometrium təbəqəsinin cırılaraq atılmasıdır. Cinsi yetkinlik yaşına çatmış dişilərdə müəyyən müddətlərdə özünü təkrar edən bu proses məməli heyvanların bir çoxunda yaşanan bir hadisədir. Menstruasiya sayəsində uşaqlıq divarı yenilənir, hamiləlik üçün sağlam və yeni bir toxuma “inşa” edilir. Lakin köhnə divar qanama və axıntıyla birlikdə xaricə atılır. Əslində bir çox məməli növündə menstruasiya(məişət dili ilə aybaşı) olur, ancaq yalnızca insanlarda, şimpanzelər, yarasalar və fil siçanlarında “açıq qanama” deyilən menstruasiya tipi müşahidə edilir. Digər məməlilərdə menstruasiya qanaması vajinadan xaricə axmır və qan uşaqlığın içərisindəki divar tərəfindən sorulur. Beləcə xaricədə heç bir qanama əlaməti əks olunmaz. Buna “gizli menstruasiya” və ya “qapalı menstruasiya” adı verilir.

Primatlar arasında yalnız insanlar və şimpanzenin vajina içərisindəki cırılma nəticəsində çölə doğru bir qanama /axıntı müşahidə edilir. Oranqutanlar və qorillalarda da bəzən bu hala rast gəlmək olur. Bu vəziyyət digər meymunlar ilə insan arasındakı əcdad birliyini təsdiq edən milyonlarla nümunədən biridir. İnsanın daha uzaq digər meymun “qohumlarına” gəldikdə isə, daha çox gizli menstruasiya halına rast gəlinir (rhesus meymunları istisnasıyla). Strepsirhin meymunlarda menstruasiya halı heç müşahidə edilmir, ancaq onların ən yaxın qohumu olan Haplorhin meymunlarında menstruasiya müşahidə edilir (ki insanlar və bütün yaxın qohumları da bu qrupdan olan meymunlardır). Yenə təkamülün tam da nəzərdə tutduğu kimi, Strepsirhin ilə Haplorhin meymunları arasında bir keçid qrupunda menstruasiya halının erkən bir versiyasına rast gəlinir, yəni menstruasiya kimi bir mövzuda belə təkamülün izlərini aşkar bir şəkildə görə bilirik.

Primatlardan başqa məməlilərdə (pişiklər, itlər, atlar, fillər, siçanlar, donuzlar, və s.) gizli menstruasiya halı baş verir. Bu canlı növlərinin menstruasiya dövrləri də fərqli fərqlidir. İnsanların dişiləri hər ay menstruasiya olduğu halda, itlərdə bu hal hər 6 ayda bir dəfə, pişiklərdə isə yenə insanlardakı kimi hər ay yaşanır. Atlarda  3 həftədə 1, siçanlarda isə hər 5 gündə 1 yaşanır. Itlərdə bəzən xaricə doğru qanama müşahidə edilsə də, bu menstruasiya halı deyil, çünki qanamanın səbəbi uşaqlıq divarının parçalanması deyil, cütləşmə dövründə olan itin vajina divarındakı kapilyar damarların çatlayaraq qanamağa səbəb olmasıdır. Məməli heyvanlardan çıxıb, yumurta qoyan heyvanlara göz atdığımız zaman, menstruasiya halının tamamilə yox olduğunu görürük. Sürünənlərin, qurbağaların, balıqların çoxu və quşların heç birində menstruasiya halı baş verməz. Bunun səbəbi yumurta qoyan heyvanların uşaqlığa ehtiyacı olmamasıdır. Bu heyvanlarda uşaqlıq təkamül etməmişdir.

Redaktə etdi: Ziya Mehdiyev

Məqalə Evrim Ağacının bu məqaləsindən Rezonans üçün tərcümə edilmişdir

Mənbələr:

  1. My Period
  2. Menstruation
  3. Independent
  4. Quora
  5. Scientific American

 

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