Pişik diridir, ya ölü?

99
1935-ci ildə nüfuzlu fizik, Nobel mükafatı laureatı və kvant mexanikasının banisi Ervin Şrödinger məşhur paradoksunu hazırlayır.
Alim irəli sürür ki, əgər hər hansı bir pişiyi götürüb, içərisini müşahidə edə bilmədiyimiz və içərisində “cəhənnəm maşını” quraşdırılmış poladdan qutuya yerləşdirsək, bir saat sonra pişik eyni anda həm ölü, həm də diri vəziyyətdə olacaq. Qutu içərisindəki mexanizm belədir: Geyger sayğacı içərisində mikroskopik miqdarda radioaktiv maddə yerləşir, hansı ki bir saata yalnız bir atoma parçalanır – eyni ehtimalla parçalanmaya da bilər. Parçalanma baş versə mexanizm işə düşərək, çəkicin, içərisində sinil turşusu olan qabı sındırmağına səbəb olacaq, dolayısıyla da pişik öləcək. Lakin əgər parçalanma baş verməsə qab sınmayacaq və pişik sağ və salamat qalacaq.
Əgər söhbət pişik və qutudan deyil, subatom hissəciklərin dünyasından getsəydi alimlər pişiyin eyni anda həm sağ, həm də ölü olduğunu iddia edəcəkdilər, lakin makrodünya səviyyəsində belə bir ümumiləşdirmə düzgün olmazdı. Elə isə əsas mövzu materiyanın daha kiçik hissəcikləri olduqda, niyə belə anlayışlara üz tuturuq?
Şrödingerin illüstrasiyası kvant fizikasının əsas paradoksunun izahı üçün ideal nümunə hesab olunur: qanunlara əsasən, elektronlar, fotonlar və hətta atomlar kimi hissəciklər eyni anda iki vəziyyətdə mövcuddurlar ( işgəncə verilən pişiyi xatırlayaq – “diri” və “ölü” vəziyyətlərində). Belə vəziyyətlər superpozisiyalar adlanır.
Arkanzas Universitetindən olan fizik Art Hobson ötən il bu paradoksun həlli üçün şəxsi variantını irəli sürüb. O, bildirir ki, Şrödingerin paradoksunda pişik makroskopik cihaz – nüvənin parçalanması və ya parçalanmamasının müəyyənləşdirilməsi üçün radioaktiv nüvəyə birləşdirilmiş Geygerin sayğacı rolunu oynayır. Belə halda diri pişik “parçalanmamağın” indikatoru, ölü isə “parçalanmağın” göstəricisi olacaq. Amma kvant nəzəriyyəsinə əsasən, pişik eynən nüvə kimi iki “həyat” və “ölüm” superpozisiyalarında da mövcud olmalıdır.
Bunun əvəzinə pişiyin kvant vəziyyəti atomun vəziyyətinə dolaşmalıdır ki, bu da onların bir-biri ilə qeyri-lokal əlaqədə olduğu mənasını verir. Yəni, dolaşıq obyektlərdən birinin vəziyyəti anidən əksə doğru çevrilsə, bir-birindən hansı məsafədə olduqlarından asılı olmayaraq digər cütünün vəziyyəti də eynən belə dəyişiləcək.
Kvant dolaşıqlığı nəzəriyyəsinin ən maraqlı üzü budur ki, hər iki hissəciyin də vəziyyətinin dəyişilməsi ani olaraq baş verir: heç bir işıq və ya elektromaqnit siqnal informasiyanı bir sistemdən digərinə ötürməyə vaxt tapmazdı. Beləliklə, bunun, məkan vasitəsilə iki hissəyə bölünmüş vahid obyekt olduğunu qeyd etmək olar.
Hobsonun göstərdiyi kimi, Şrödingerin pişiyi artıq eyni anda həm diri, həm də ölü deyil – paradoks həll oluna bilər. Ən sadə izah olaraq, əgər parçalanma baş versə pişik öləcək, baş verməsə – yaşamağa davam edəcək.
Sadig Ş-Off

99 ŞƏRH

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