Kainatın yaşı necə hesablanır?

89

Populyar elmlə məşğul olan hər kəs Kainatımızın təxminən 13.82 milyard il yaşında olduğunu biləcəklər. Müqayisə edilməsi üçün Günəş Sisteminin yaşı 4.6 milyard il, Dünyanın yaşı 4.53 milyard il, canlılığın yaşı 3.9 milyard il, çoxhüceyrəli həyatın yaşı 1 milyard il, ilk onurğalıların yaşı 375 milyon il, ilk primatların yaşı 47 milyon il, ilk insansının yaşı 6 milyon il, ilk insan növünün (Homo sp.) yaşı 2 milyon il, növümüzün yaşı isə 200.000 ildir.

 

Ancaq Kainatın yaşının necə hesablandığı bir çoxlarının bilmədiyi bir mövzudur. Hər nə qədər yenə məşhur səviyyədə fizikayla maraqlanan biri, Kainatın yaşının hesablanmasında “qırmızıya sürüşmə” və ya “Kainatın genişlənmə sürəti” kimi anlayışlara müraciət etmiş olsalar da, bunların riyazi olaraq hesablanmasının necə istifadə edildiyini bir çox adam bilməyəcək. Bu yazımızda, hesablamaların çox səthi bir versiyasını sizlərə göstərməyə çalışacağıq.

 

İlk olaraq, Kainatın yaşını hesablaya bilmək üçün Kainatımızın genişlənməkdə olan bir quruluş sahib olduğunu qəbul etməliyik. Bu, əlimizdəki bütün müşahidələrlə uyğun bir iddiadır və Habl Qanunu, qalaktik çoxluqların bir-birindən uzaqlaşmış olmasını birbaşa isbatlamağımızı təmin edir. Ayrıca bu məlumat parçası, Kainatımızın keçmişdə bu günə nisbətən daha kiçik olduğunun göstəricisidir. Bu vacibdir, çünki hesablarımızı buna istinad etmək məcburiyyətindəyik.

 

Kainatın yaşını hesablaya bilmək üçün kainatın görünən genişlənmə sürətinin (bu anda qalaktika çoxluqlarının bir-birindən uzaqlaşma miqdarının) Kainatın tarixi boyunca sabit olduğunu güman edə bilərik. Əlbəttə ki, bu doğru deyil və belə bir fərziyyə hesabımıza bir miqdar səhv qatacaq, ancaq yenə də hesabları asanlaşdırması baxımından faydalı bir fərziyyə olduğunu deyə bilərik. Onsuz da görəcəyiniz kimi nəticəsi də elə ciddi dəyişməyəcəkdir.

 

Əgər ki qalaktika çoxluqlarının bir-birindən uzaqlaşma sürətini Kainatın genişlənmə sürəti olaraq qəbul etsək, qalaktikaların bir-birindən nə qədər müddət əvvəl ayrılmağa başladığını da hesablaya bilərik, çünki aralarında məsafəni də dəqiq olaraq bilirik. Bu da, ilk genişləmənin nə vaxt başladığını, bu səbəbdən Böyük Partlamanın nə zaman baş verdiyini və buna görə də Kainatın yaşını verəcək.

 

Əlbəttə ki, Kainatın genişlənmə sürəti, onun yaşına da birbaşa təsir edir. Əgər ki Kainat çox sürətli bir şəkildə genişləyirsə, günümüzdəki genişliyinə nisbi olaraq qısa bir müddətdə çata biləcək və buda gənc bir Kainat da yaşamış olduğumuza səbəb olacaqdır. Ancaq əgər ki genişlənmə nisbi olaraq yavaşdırsa,buda yəqin ki, çox yaşlı bir Kainat içərisində yaşayırıq deməkdir. Çünki indiki vaxtda müşahidə etdiyimiz qalaktikalar arası məsafələrin meydana gəlməsi üçün həddindən artıq uzun bir müddət lazım olacaqdır.

 

Habl Teleskopundan əldə etdiyimiz vizual məlumatlarla mütəxəsislər tərəfindən aparılan təhlillər sayəsində Kainatın genişlənmə sürətinin Habl Sabit (H0) ilə əlaqəli olduğunu bilirik. Bu sabit, bir-birindən uzaqlaşan qalaktikalardan birindən digərinə gələn işığın “qırmızıya sürüşmə” miqdarına bağlı olaraq müəyyənləşdirilir. Bu hadisə, müəyyən bir dalğa boyuna sahib olan işığın qət etdiyi yolun Kainatın genişlənməsi səbəbindən “uzanması”, buna görə də dalğanın sanki bir spagetti kimi uzanaraq tezliyinin düşməsi və buna görə də daha qırmızımtıl bir dalğa boyuna sürüşməsinə verilən addır. Bunun nə qədər sürətli yaşandığına bağlı olaraq, Kainatın genişlənmə sürətini təyin edə bilirik.

 

Habl Qanunundan istifadə edərək, Kainatın təxminən yaşını hesablamaq mümkündür. Deyək ki, müşahidə etdiyimiz iki qalaktika arasındakı məsafə “D” olsun. Bu ikisinin bir-birindən görünən uzaqlaşma sürəti “v” olsun. Bu vəziyyətdə, bu qalaktikalar bir zamanlar bir-birlərinə “dəyəcək qədər” yaxın məsafədə olduğu halda Kainatın genişlənməsi səbəbiylə indiki vaxtda bir-birlərindən “v” sürətiylə, “D” qədər uzaqlaşmışdırlar. Əgər ki sadə bir şəkildə D’ni, v’yə bölsək, bu uzaqlaşmağın hansı müddətdə yaşandığını təyin edə bilərik ki, bu da bizə Kainatın yaşını verəcəkdir. Bunu başa düşməyin ən asan bir yolu budur: Əgər ki Bakı ilə Balakən arasındakı 471 kilometrlik məsafəni saatda 100 kilometr ilə qət etdiyimizi biliriksə, bu vəziyyətdə 471’i 100-ə bölərək 4.71 saat müddətini əldə edə bilərik. Bax edəcəyimiz də eynilə budur. İndi, bildiklərimizi bir yerə gətirək:

t = D / v

Bu tənliyin bizə Kainatın yaşını verəcəyini demişdik. Bununla birlikdə, Habl Qanunu genişlənmə sürətinin Habl sabit ilə qalaktikalar-arası məsafə qədər olduğunu ifadə edir. Bunu belə ifadə edə bilərik:

v = H0 * D

Bu vəziyyətdə, bu ikinci tənliyi birinci tənliyə yerləşdirəcək olsaq, “D” deyişkəninin bir-birini sadələşdirdiyini görərik. Bu vəziyyətdə geriyə qalan budur:

t = 1 / H0

İndiki vaxtda müşahidə məlumatlarına əsaslanaraq əldə etdiyimiz ən yaxşı Habl sabiti megaparsek (30.800 katrilyon kilometr) başına və saniyə başına 73 kilometrdir (H0 = 73 km / s / Mpc). Burda megaparsek ilə kilometri sadələşdirsək, Habl sabitinin eyni zamanda belə də ifadə edilə biləcəyimizi görərik:

H0 = 2.37 x 10-18 1 / s

Bu vəziyyətdə, bu sabiti bir əvvəlki tənlikdə yerinə yazıb hesablamanı etsək, qarşımıza çıxan müddət 421.94 katrilyon saniyədir. Bu zaman miqdarını ilə çevirəcək olsaq:

t = 13.4 milyard il

qarşımıza çıxacaqdır.

Göründüyü kimi əldə edilən bu ədədin üzərində 420 milyon il qədər səhv var, çünki burda sizə çox sadə bir hesablama təqdim etdik. Lakin əgər ki həm Habl sabit üzərindəki inkişaf etdirmələri hesaba qatıb, həm də Kainatın genişlənmə sürətinin xüsusilə də ilk başlarda sabit bilməyəcəyini nəzərə alsanız, 13.82 milyard il sayını əldə etməyiniz mümkün olacaq. İndiki vaxtda Avropa Kosmos Agentliyi tərəfindən həyata keçirilən Planck işlərindən gələn məlumatları istifadə edərək daha məqsədəuyğun hesablamalar aparılır. Kainatımızın yaşını sadə şəkildə hesablaya bilirik.

89 ŞƏRH

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