Homo Sapiens Sapiensdə irqləri ayırmağa lazım olan qədər böyük genetik müxtəliflik yoxdur

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Tədqiqatçıların fikirlərinə görə insan növü daxilindəki genetik müxtəlifliyin irqləri ayıracaq səviyyədə deyil. Bu düşüncə Riçard Levontinin tədqiqatlarından sonra ortaya çıxıb. Levontin tədqiqatını insandakı 16 geni analiz edərək aparmışdı. Müasir dövrdə isə, genom(gen xəritəsi) tədqiqatlarının köməyi ilə müəyyən edilmişdir ki, Levontinin 6.3% kimi göstərdiyi irqlərarası müxtəliflik 5%dən də azdır. Bu tədqiqat zamanı 650 minə yaxın DNT dəyişiklik nöqtəsi analiz olunmuşdu. Tədqiqatın nəticəsində məlum olmuşdu ki, Avropa qitəsi digər qitələrə görə daha homogendir. Yəni, irqçi nəzəriyyələrin yarandığı, bu yolda insanların öldürüldüyü Avropa qitəsindəki genetik müxtəliflik digər qitələrdəki müxtəliflikdən azdır.

 

Populyasiyaların daxilində və ya populyasiyalararası genetik fərqliliklərə insanın genetik variasiyaları deyilir. Bu variasiyaların nisbətini təyin etmək üçün bir çox üsul var. Bunlara nümunə kimi SNP, SNV, YDNT, mtDNT, ekzom tədqiqatlarını göstərmək olar. DNT-dəki tək hərf dəyişikliklərini analiz edən SNP tədqiqatlarının nəticələrinə görə insan genindəki 3.2 milyard vahiddən yalnız 3 milyonu SNP nöqtələridir. Yəni, hər 1000 vahiddən 1-i insanlar arasında fərqlilik göstərir. Bu tədqiqata əsaslanaraq belə nəticə çıxarılır ki, hər min vahiddən biri fərqlidir deyə insanların genetik quruluşunda yalnız 0.1% fərq var.

 

Kopya sayı variasiyası tədqiqatından da oxşar nəticə çıxmışdı. Bu tədqiqatın nəticəsinə görə isə insan genlərində hər min nöqtədən 4-ü fərqlidir, yəni, insanın genetik variasiyası 0.4%-dir.

ABŞ-da Vaşinqton, Miçiqan və Harvard universitetlərinin professorları və Texas Baylor universiteti Tibb fakültəsinin birgə apardıqları araşdırmaların 10 Yanvar 2013-cü ildə Nature jurnalında açıqlanan nəticələri də bu mənada maraq doğurur. Bu tədqiqatda qeyd olunur ki, insanın genetik quruluşunun müxtəlifləşməsi daha çox son dövrlərdə, konkret olaraq əkinçiliyin meydana çıxmasından sonra olub. Tədqiqata görə protein kodlayan SNVlərin 73%-i, bütün SNV-lərin isə 86%-i keçən 5-10 min il daxilində yaranıb. Bu dövrün də əkinçiliyin yayıldığı əsas dövr olmasını nəzərə alan tədqiqatçılar bu iki məsələ arasında əlaqə olması ehtimalının çox güclü olduğunu qeyd edirlər. Yəni, əkinçiliyin yaranması insan genetikasını ciddi dəyişikliyə uğradıb.

 

Lakin, tədqiqatçıların insan genləri arasındakı fərqliliyin çox aşağı səviyyədə olduğunu qeyd etməkləri o demək deyil ki, insan genomundakı bütün bölgələrə nəzər yetirərək, insanın hansı coğrafi bölgədən, köklərinin başladığını demək olmaz. Hətta, bunu sadə insanlar üçün müəyyən məbləğ qarşılığında edən təşkilatlar da var. Hətta, bəzi hallarda genomdakı 100 gen bölgəsinə (lokuslar) baxaraq da olduqca dəqiq məlumatlar vermək olur. Amma, bir qrup genə və ya onlarla genə baxaraq belə bir ayırma, coğrafi köklərin təyin olunması mümkün deyil. Bəzən də, ayrı irq kimi göstərilən insanlar üçün yüzlərlə genin analizi də dəqiq bir şey deməyə imkan vermir. İrq təsnifatlarına qarşı çıxan akamediklər də bunun ciddi maneə olduğunu qeyd edirlər. Onların fikrincə, insan irqləri həqiqətən var olsaydı, insanların genomlarına ilkin baxış da onları qruplaşdırmaq üçün kifayət etməli idi.

İnsan növü daxilində bunu edə bilməməyimizin səbəbini bu ikinci istiqamətin dəstəkçiləri insanda genetik müxtəlifliyin çox aşağı səviyyədə olması ilə açıqlayırlar. Yəni, genetik cəhətdən lazımı variasiya yoxdur deyə irqlər də yoxdur. Pubmed-də yayımlanan insan genetikasının müxtəlifliyi ilə bağlı məqaləyə görə, müxtəliflik insanda 0.1%-dirsə, canavar növləri daxilində 1%-ə qədər qalxır. Şimpanzelərin genetik variasiyası da insandakından çoxdur. Halbuki, şimpanze dedikdə insanların ağlına yalnız bir növ canlı, insan dedikdə isə böyük rəngarənglik gəlir.

 

Ramil Babayev

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AZƏRBAYCAN TİBB UNİVERSİTETİNDƏ TƏHSİL ALIR. ƏSASƏN FƏLSƏFƏ,PSİXATRİYA/PSİXOLOGİYA,TİBB BÖLMƏSİNDƏ MƏQALƏLƏR YAZIR. REZONANSIN İDEYA MÜƏLLİFİDİR.

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