Beyin haqqında səhv bildiklərimiz

89

Bildiyimiz kimi insanlar arasında olduqca geniş yayılmış bir inanc vardır :”Insanlar beyinlərinin 3%-ni (5 %-ni, 10%-ni və s.) istifadə edirlər, Eynşteyn belə 5 %-ni istifadə edirmiş. Bəzi insanlar bütün həyatı boyu çalışsa beyinlərinin 4%-ni işlədə bilərlər. Deməli, görəsən, beynimizin 100%-ni istifadə etsək, nə olar?” Təəssüflər olsun ki, bir çox insanlar bu yanlış düşüncəyə inanmaqla qalmır, bunu hər yerdə dilə gətirir və yanlış informasiya yayırlar, lakin elmlə maraqlanan insan bunun səbəbini araşdırmalıdır. Belə araşdırma nəticəsində bu düşüncənin nə qədər absurd olduğu ortaya çıxacaq. Bu məqaləmizdə də çox insanın düşündüyü bu absurd fikrin niyə yanlış olduğunu nəzərdən keçirəcəyik.

 

Bu fikir haradan meydana çıxdı?

1890-cı ildə Harvard Universitetinin Psixologiya fakültəsində araşdırmalar aparan elm adamları William James və Boris Sidisin ”rezerv enerji nəzəriyyəsi” belə  bir fikrin yaranmasına səbəb oldu. Bu nəzəriyyəyə əsasən insanların beyin həcmi (cranial capacity) vasitəsilə əldə etdikləri ən yüksək İQ səviyyəsi 250-300 arasında dəyişir. Lakin James və Sidis insanların yalnız cüzi bir hissəsinin bu İQ səviyyəsinə çata biləcəyini düşünürlər. Araşdırmalar nəticəsində indiyə qədər yaşamış insanların yalnız 3-10%-nin İQ səviyyəsinin 250-ə çatdığı ortaya çıxmışdır. Bu araşdırmaların yanlış istiqamətdə aparılması günümüzdə belə absurd fikirlərin insanlar arasında geniş vüsət almasına yol açmışdır.

 

Daha sonra 1998-ci ildə Dr. James Kalatın etdiyi bir araşdırma nəticəsində bu fikir yenidən gündəmə gəlmişdir. Bu araşdırma elm adamlarının beynin müxtəlif bölgələrini tədqiq etməsi ilə bağlı edilmişdir. Belə ki, elm adamları beynin bəzi bölgələrinin gün içində passiv olduğu qənaətinə gəlmişlər. Həmçinin, onlar beynin içərisində yerləşən bəzi ganglionların da (sinir düyünlərinin)  gün içində aktiv olmadıqlarını müşahidə etmişlər.

Kalatın məqaləsində insanların beyinlərinin 10%-ni istifadə etmələri haqqında bir cümləyə rast gəlinir. Bu cümlə də bugünkü həmin absurd  fikir üçün təməl rolu oynamışdı, lakin əslində Kalat “biological psychology” jurnalında dərc olunan məqaləsində bu mövzuya bir qədər açıqlıq gətirmişdir. O, beynimizi tamamilə istifadə etdiyimizi ,sadəcə gün içində bəzi bölgələrin daha az aktiv  olmalarını və bunun  həmin bölgələri işlətmədiyimiz mənasına gəlmədiyini izah etmişdir.

2014-cü ildə baş rollarını Morgan Freeman və Scarlett Johansson un paylaşdığı “Lucy” filmi ilə bu fikir yenidən gündəmə gəlmişdir.

 

İndi isə gəlin bu fikrin niyə səhv olmasını elmi sübütlarla gözdən keçirək

7 fevral 2008-ci ildə “Scientific American” jurnalında dərc olunan məqalədə Baltimore da yerləşən Dünyanın ən prestijli tibb fakültəsi olan Johns Hopkins Tibb fakültəsindən Prof.Dr Berry Gordon bu mübahisələrə son nöqtəni qoydu.  Biz də bu məqalədən bir hissəni sizlərlə paylaşırıq:

Ilk öncə əgər iddia olunduğu kimi beynimizin 10%ni istifadə etsəydik (yəni 90%ni istifadə etməsəydik);

1. Beyində meydana gələn zədələnmələrin böyük bir qisminin bizə təsiri olmazdı, çünki ehtimal nəzəriyyəsinə görə beyində əmələ gələn zədələnmə 90 % ehtimalla guya  “beynimizin işlək olmayan bölgəsində” meydana gələcək və bu da bizə təsir etməyəcəkdi. Ancaq indiyə qədər edilən araşdırmalar göstərmişdir ki, beynin hər hansı bir bölgəsinin aldığı zədələnmə bədənimizin həmin bölgəylə bağlı funksiyasına mütləq olaraq xəsarət yetirəcəkdir. Beynin aldığı ən kiçik zədələnmə belə çox ciddi fəsadlara yol açır. Məsələn, beyin tomoqrafiyasında beynin hər hansı bir nahiyəsində rast gəlinən qırışığın bucağının 1-2 dərəcə fərqli olması psixoloji vəziyyətimizin pozulmasına səbəb ola bilər.

 

2. Ikinci olaraq təkamül də bu iddiaların yanlış olduğunu isbatlayır. Bildiyimiz kimi təbiətdə “mübadilə prinsipi“ adlanan bir anlayış vardır və bu anlayışa görə əgər bir orqan hər hansı bir funksiyaya malik deyilsə, yaxud onun əhəmiyyəti yoxdursa, o, ya rudiment qalmalı, ya da yeni bir funksiya əldə etməlidir və əgər bu fikrin düz olduğunu düşünsək, onda insan deyilən bir varlıq bugün olmazdı. Bu da bu absurd fikrə daha bir zərbə vurur.

3. Beyin orqanizmdə dövr edən qanın çox böyük bir hissəsinə (20%) ehtiyacı var. Əgər həqiqətən də beyinin yalnız 1/10 işləsəydi, digər 9/10 hissə orqanizmə lazım olan qanı “boşuna” sərf edəcəkdi. Hətta fərz etsək ki, bu 9/10 hissədəki hüceyrələr necəsə qansız yaşayırlar, yenə də orta yaşlı insanın kəllə qutusunda 1 kiloqramdan artıq işləməyən, lazımsız kütlə daşıması sadəcə gülüncdür. Təkamül prosesində bu 9/10 hissə artıq çoxdan yox olardı (necəsə əmələ gəlsəydi belə).

 

4. MRT və PET (maqnit rezonans və pozitron rezonans tomoqrafiyaları) vasitəsilə beyinin işini və aktiv sahələrini izləmək mümkündür. Tədqiqatlar göstərir ki, hətta yuxu zamanı belə beyin tam işləyir və beyində heç bir işləməyən hissə tapılmayıb.

 

5. Daha bir araşdırmaya əsasən bu nəzəriyyənin əsassız olduğunu sübut edə bilərik. “Single unit recording” adlanan texnologiya sayəsində beyinə elektrodların yerləşdirilməsi zamanı beyindəki hər bir hüceyrənin ani olaraq aktivləşməsini görmək olar. Aktivləşməyən bölgəyə rast gəlinməmişdir.

6. Yenə də buna oxşar olaraq, beyinə radioaktiv olaraq nişanlanmış 2-deoksiqlükoza molekulları yeridilir. Daha sonra radioqraf vasitəsilə hansı hüceyrələrin aktivləşdiyi müşahidə olunur. Əgər iddia edildiyi kimi beynimizin 90%-ni işlətməsəydik, radioqrafda beynin 90% bölgəsi qaranlıq çıxardı, yəni heç bir aktivləşmə müşahidə olunmazdı. Bayaq da qeyd etdiyimiz kimi beyində aktiv olmayan bir bölgə yoxdur.

Əlqərəz, beyində işləməyən bölgə yoxdur. Bəzi bölgələr daha az, bəziləri daha çox işləyir. Yəni  “beynin 10%-i işləyir” kimi şəhər əfsanələrinə inanmayın.

Redaktor: Nadir İsmayılov

 

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