“Ağ ayı effekti”

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Veqnerin eksperimenti psixoloji eksperimentdir. Həmçinin bu eksperiment “Ağ ayı effekti” və “düşüncələrin sıxılma mümkünsüzlüyü” adları altında bizə məlumdur. Bu eksperiment Triniti universitetinin laboratoriyasında həyata keçirilib. Eksperimentin əsas məqsədi tələbələrin hər hansı bir predmet haqqında düşünməyə qadağa qoyulduğu zaman onların reaksiyası idi.

Eksperimentin gedişatı

Harvard universitetinin psixologiya üzrə professor Daniel Veqner tələbələri yığdı və onları 2 qrupa ayırdı. Düşüncə predmeti kimi o ağ ayını seçdi. I qrup tələbələrə ağ ayı haqqında düşünmək tələb olunan zaman II qrup tələbələrə bu haqqda düşünməmək tapşırığı verildi. Hər dəfə eksperiment iştirakçıları ağ ayı haqqda düşündüyü zaman zəngli düyməyə basmalı idilər. Eksperimentin nəticəsində aydın oldu ki, ağ ayı tələbələrin beynində dəqiqədə 1 dəfədən çox canlanır. Məlum oldu ki, qadağa ancaq qadağa olunan predmet haqqına düşünməyə daha çox vadar edir. Düşünmə prosesinə nəzarət etmək, əsas da stress zamanı qadağa olunmuş düşüncəni daha da obsessiv edir. I qrupun iştirakçılarında bu hadisə müşahidə olunmadı.

“Mən yüz şey haqqda düşünməyə çalışıram – ağ ayıdan başqa hər şey. Lakin yenidən ağ ayıya qayıdıram. Məsələn: Bu qəhvəyi divarı götürək. Hər dəfə ağ ayı haqqında düşünməmək istəyəndə bu divar haqqında düşünürəm” – bir tələbənin ifadəsi.

Veqner öz nəticələrini “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology” jurnalında dərc etdirmiş və “istehzalı proseslər” anlayışını daxil etmişdir.

İSTEHZALI PROSESLƏR NƏZƏRİYYƏSİ

İstehzalı proseslərin mahiyyəti ondan ibarətdir ki, düşüncə və istəyi azaltmaq cəhdi zamanı qadağa olunmuş düşüncənin ikiqat güclə şüurumuza gəlir. Effekt müxtəlif psixoloji problemlərə şərait yaradır. Venqerə görə istehzalı effekt insanlar gərgin və sıxılmış vəziyyətdə olduqda özünü daha güclü göstərir. “Bizim laboratoriyamızda müşahidələr istehzalı effekti insan həyatının bir çox sahələrində olduğunu göstərdi. İstehzalı proses biz əhvalımızı idarə etmək istəyərkən özünü göstərir. Əsasən də bu güclü psixoloji yük zamanı baş verir. Hansı adamlar ki, özünü xoşbəxt hiss etmək istəyirlər onlar özlərini bədbəxt hiss edirlər və əksinə. Bu effekt özünü idarə etmək istəyərkən də yaranır. Stressli insanlar özlərini rahat hiss etmək istəyərkən bunun tam əksi baş verir. İstehzalı effekt həmçinin güclü yatmaq arzusu zamanı da müşahidə olunur. Bizim eksperimentlərimizdə güclü musiqi səsi altında tez bir zamanda yatmaq tələb olunan insanlar daha uzun müddətə yuxuya gedirdilər, nəinki yatmağa çalışmayan insanlar. İstehzalı effekt həm də öz hərəkətlərimizi idarə etmək istədiyimiz zaman da yaranır. İştirakçılardan kəfkiri titrəyişdən müəyyən olunmuş istiqamətdə tutmaq tələb olunduğu zaman kəfkir titrəyiş istiqamətində daha çox tərpənirdi. Lakin bu hal tələb olunmayan iştirakçılarda baş vermirdi.” – DANİEL VEQNER

Mənbə:

  • Wegner, D. M. (1989). White bears and other unwanted thoughts: Suppression, obsession, and the psychology of mental control. New York: Viking/Penguin. German translation by Ernst Kabel Verlag, 1992. 1994 Edition, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Wegner DM. White bears and other unwanted thoughts: Suppression, obsession, and the psychology of mental control. New York: Viking/Penguin; 1989.
  • Психология личности. Капрара Д., Сервон Д., Издательство – Санкт-Петербург, 2003
  • The Illusion of Conscious Will Daniel M Wegner. Издательство: «New Ed edition», «MIT Press» 2003 г. ISBN: 978-0262731621
  • D. Wegner «Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression», American Psychologist, 2011, № 66.
  • D. Wegner et al. «Paradoxical effects of thought suppression». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, № 57.
  • Book: Blackmore, Susan J.. Conversations on consciousness. Daniel Wegner. 21 March 2011. 15 November 2005. Oxford University Press. 978-0-19-280622-2. 245–257.”More than good intentions: Holding fast to faith in free will”, The New York Times
Hazırladı: Azadə İsmayılova

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