2016-cı ilin ən əsas 10 elmi kəşfi.

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  • Yerin yeni peyki.

27 aprel 2016-cı ildə Yerin orbitində çox da böyük olmayan asteroid müşahidə edildi. İlk öncə düşünülürdü ki, o Yerin ətrafında sadəcə bir neçə yüz illər ərzində fırlanacaq. Lakin son ölçmələr bu müddəti minimum 1 milyon  ilə qədər uzadır.

  • Karbon dioksid daşları.

Karbon dioksid istixana qazlarından biridir. Atmosferdə onun çoxluğu istixana effektinə gətirib çıxarır. Alimlər isə bu problemi həll etməyə çalışırlar. İslandiya alimləri bu yaxınlarda bunun ən effektiv üsulunu tapıblar. Onlar karbon dioksidin müəyyən həcmini vulkanik süxurlara doldurdular və bu bazaltın karbonat minerallarına çevrilməsini sürətləndirdi.Bu prosesin sonunda əhəng daşı əmələ gəlir. Adətən bu proses yüz illər davam edir,lakin island alimləri bu prosesi 2 il ərzində tamamlamağı bacardılar. Nəticədə karbon qazı daşın tərkibində qalır və yerin altında saxlanıla bilər. Bununla da artıq atmosferə karbon qazının ayrılmasını kəskin şəkildə azaltmaq olar.

  • Super Ay

Keçən il Ay  Yer planetinə ən maksimal məsafəyə yaxınlaşdı

  • Kök hüceyrələr  insult keçirən insanları xilas edə bilər.

Stenford universitetində pasiyentlər  belə bir təcrübədən keçdilər. Kök hüceyrələrinin iniyeksiyasını pasiyentlərin düz beyninə yeridildi. Üsul uğurlu oldu və heç bir əks təsir müşahidə olunmadı.

İnsult keçirmiş hər bir könüllüdə bu eksperimentdən sonra yaxşılaşma müşahidə edildi. Kök hüceyrələrinin inyeksiyası pasiyentlərin mobilliyini o qədər yüksəltdi ki, hətta yeriyə bilməyənlər yenidən ayağa qalxmağı bacardılar.

  • İflic olmuş insanlar üçün implantlar.

Alimlər kibernetik implant ixtira etdilər. Bu implantlar vasitəsi ilə iflic olmuş insanlar yenidən barmaqlarını hərəkət etdirə bildilər. Kompakt cihaz xəstənin beyninə yerləşdirildi.

Bu cihaz Oqayo ştatının universitetindən olan alim tərəfindən hazırlanmışdır. İşləmə mexanizmi bu cürdür: Siqnallar yaxınlıqda yerləşən qəbulediciyə ötürülür,sonra isə elektron əlcəyə çatdırılır. əlcəkdə xüsusi elektrik məftilləri yerləşir ki, onlar da əzələləri stimulə etməklə barmaqları hərəkət etdirir.

  • Məlumatların əbədi saxlanılması üsulunun kəşfi.

Sautqemptonsk universitetinin mütəxəssisləri nanostrukturlu şüşədən istifadə edərək məlumatların yeni yazım və oxu üsulunu icad etdilər. Cihaz balaca bir şüşə diskə bənzəyir. Buna baxmayaraq, 360 terebayta qədər məlumat saxlaya bilir. Bununla bərabər 1000 selsi dərəcəyədək dözümlülüyə malikdir.

Buna görə də orta otaq temperaturunda belə məlumat təxminən 13,8milyard il saxlanıla bilər.

  • Həyat mutasiya nəticəsində yarandı.

Alimlər müəyyən etdilər ki,qədim zülal GK-PİD təkhüceyrəli canlıların çoxhüceyrəli canlılara keçməsinin əsas səbəbidir. Bu 800 milyon il əvvəl baş vermişdir. Kəşf həm də onu bildirdi ki, qədim GK-PID zülalı özünü onun müasir variantından fərqli aparırdı. Məsələ burasındadır ki, qədim gen ikiləşdi. Bunun nəticəsində də çoxhüceyrəli orqanizmlər yarandı.

 

  • Üçüncü adam artıq deyil.

2016-cı ilin aprel ayında Meksikada üçüncü şəxsin mitoxondrial DNT sinin iştirakının mayLanması ilə uşaq dünyaya gəlmişdir. “3 valideyn üsulu” donor qadının DNT-sini ananın yumurtahüceyrəsinə yerləşdirməkdən ibarətdir. Alimlər düşünürlər ki, bu mutasiyaların təsirini azalda bilər. əməliyyatı Con Çan yerinə yetirmişdir. O Meksikanı ona görə seçmişdir ki, bu cür əməliyyatlar Amerikada qadağandır. Uşaq isə tam sağlam doğulmuşdur.

  • 9-cu planet.

Artıq bilirik ki, Pluton öz statusunu 2009-cu ildə itirib.Ancaq onun əvəzinə naməlum “X planeti”  görünüb.O Neptuna nisbətən Günəşdən 20 dəfə uzaqda yerləşir. Yerdən isə 10 dəfə daha böyükdür. Hər halda onun mövcudluğu hələ təstiqlənməyib.

  • Divar boyunca sürünən balıq.

Mağarada qəribə balıq yaşayır. Criptotora thamicola balığının möhtəşəm qabiliyyəti var. O bərk səthə yapışa,hətta dırmaşa bilir. Bu balığın quruluşunun öyrənilməsi alimlərə təkamülü dərk etməyə köməklik göstərə bilər.

 

Mənbə:

  1. https://lenta.ru/articles/2016/12/28/top/
  2. http://www.popmech.ru/science/299362-10-samykh-interesnykh-otkrytiy-2016-goda/

 

Hazırladı: Azadə İsmayılova

78 ŞƏRH

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