Nootroplar: nədir, necə işləyirlər, onları içməyə dəyər mi?

97

İddia: Nootroplar insanı anında dahiyə çevirən dərman vasitэləridir.

Bəs bu həqiqətən də belədir mi?

Nootroplar həqiqətən nədir?

Nootrop preparatlar – sinir hüceyrələrində maddələr mübadiləsini yaxşılaşdıran və düşünmə prosseslərini fəallaşdıran dərman vasitələridir. Bu dərmanlar nevroloji xəstələr üçün hazırlanır. Məsələn, insult keçirmiş, epilepsiya və Alsqeymerdən əziyyət çəkən xəstələr üçün. Çünki onlar beyinlərini dağılmaqdan qorumalı və sinir hüceyrələrini sağlam insanların səviyyəsinə çatdırmalıdırlar.

Əgər preparatlara aid təlimatları oxusaq, onda görərik ki, nootrop qəbul edən insanlar tez düşünür, yaxşı dərs oxuyur, məlumatları daha tez qavrayır və yadda saxlayır, həmçinin, stress və depressiya ilə daha yaxşı başa çıxırlar. Elə ona görə də nootroplar tələbələri sessiya zamanı daha çox maraqlandırır. Sağlam insanlar da beyinlərini dağıtmaq və turborejimdə işlətmək üçün nootroplardan istifadə etmək arzusundadırlar.

Nootroplar necə işləyir?

Bir çox nootroplar neyromediatorlara təsir göstərir. Bu maddələr sayəsində sinir hüceyrələri öz aralarında ünsiyyət qururlar. Nootroplar dopaminə, noradrenalinə, serotoninə, asetilxolinə təsir göstərirlər. Bu preparatlar beynin bütün kimyasına təsir göstərir və neyronların bir biri ilə qarşılıqlı təsirini gücləndirlər. Həmçinin sinir hüceyrələrini dağılmaqdan qoruyur, oksigen çatışmazlığını aradan qaldırır, toxumalarda qan dövranını və mübadilə prosseslərini gücləndirirlər. Belə şəraitdə sinir hüceyrələri daha yaxşı işləyir.

Nootroplar təsiri kummulyativdir, yəni toplanır. Biokimyəvi prosesləri hərəkətə gətirmək üçün bir neçə həftə, preparatdan asılı olaraq, bir neçə gün lazımdır. Bu səbəbdən nootroplar kursla qəbul olunur. Ona görə də imtahandan və ya mühüm müşavirədən qabaq həb udmaq mənasızdır.

          

Nootroplar işləyir mi?

Bu isə böyük məsələdir. Əslində nootroplar o qədər də yaxşı araşdırılmayıb. Heç kim dəqiq bilmir ki, onlar necə fəaliyyət göstərir. Çünki nootroplar üzrə sübutlu təbabət prinsiplərinə uyğun ola biləcək araşdırmalar yoxdur. Uyğun olan araşdırılmalar isə kifayət qədər geniş əhatəli deyil. Bu onunla bağlıdır ki, xaricdə, belə tədqiqatlar artıq norma sayılır və nootroplara dərman vasitələri kimi baxılmır. Bu preparatlar xaricdə qida əlavələridir.

Belə tədqiqatlar çoxdur, lakin bu cür təqdidatlar konkret bir preparatın təsirinə həsr olunur. Yəni həkim bir preparatı bir neçə pasiyetdə yazır və yekun vurur: Kömək etdi ya yox. Belə yanaşmanın, təbii ki, bir çox nöqsanları var, ən əsası isə bu metodun standart sübutlu təbabətin normalarına uyğun olmamasıdır. Eyni zamanda bu cür hesabatlar müəyyən bir istehsalçının açıq-aşkar reklamı kimi qələmə verilir. Hətta klinik müşahidələrdə rəylər birmənalı deyil. Pasiyetlərdə hansısa yaxşılaşma var, ancaq o qədər də böyük deyil.

Nootropların köməyi ilə müalicə olunan xəstəliklərin bir çoxu ali sinir sisteminə aiddir. Tədqiqatçılar və həkimlər yalnız xarici nəticələri qeydə ala bilərlər: Xəstə testləri necə həll etməyə başladı, artıq necə danışmağa, oxumağa başladı və sairə. Dəqiq demək olmaz, niyə sınanan şəxs tapşırığı bacarmadı: Çünki nootrop işləmədi, yaxud sırf bu gün o daha fərqli düşünürdü. Bir çox göstəricilər subyektivdir. Hansısa xəstə reaksiyanı görür, kim isə yox.

Nə qədər ki, tədqiqatlar sübut etməyib ki, nootroplar işləyir, pasiyentlərdə olan yaxşılaşamaları plasebo effektinə və ya digər dərman və amillərin təsirinə aid etmək olar. Əgər siz nootrop preparat qəbul etdikdən sonra özünüzü yaxşı hiss edirsinizsə, məlum deyil ki, bunun səbəbkarı nootropdur ya sizin daha ağıllı olduğunuza inancınızdır.

Bəzi təcrübələr də bütün bu şübhələri təsdiqləyir. Nootroplar yazılır, dərmanlar kömək edir. Ancaq nootroplardan əlavə hələ çox dərmanlar qəbul olunur və bir neçə fizioloji prosedurlardan keçmək məcburiyyətində qalınır.

 

Nootroplarla müalicə təhlükəlidir mi?

Nootropların çox az əks göstərişləri var. Bəzilərinin təlimatında yerli reaksiyaların başqa, heçnə yazılmayıb. O qədər də pis deyil, amma bir sual çıxır ortaya: Görəsən onlar ümumiyyətlə təsir göstərir mi?

Qeyd etmək lazımdır ki, nootropların təsiri nəticəsində sinir sistemi ilə bağlı xoşagəlməz fəsadlar da olur: Baş ağrıları, başgicəllənmə və s. Ən genişyayılmış əks göstərişlərdən biri ləğv sindromudur (withdrawal syndrome). Bu sindrom preparatların kəskin ləğvi zamanı orqanizmin asıllıq nəticəsində əziyyət çəkməsidir. Müxtəlif cür effektləri vardır: Baş ağrısı, başgicəllənmə, keyləşmə, əsəbilik, yuxusuzluq və sair. Bu səbəbdən nootropların istifadə kursu yavaş-yavaş dayandırılır, onlardan hər hansı effekt əldə olunmasa belə.

Nootropları içək və ya içməyək?

Nootropların maksimum təsiri (əgər olacaqsa) reseptorların fəaliyyətini gücləndirəcək, maddələr mübadiləsini və qan dövranını yaxşılaşdıracaq. Ola bilsin ki, sizə yeni məlumat öyrənmək daha asan olacaq, lakin, əmin olun ki, yeni beyin qırışıqları əmələ gəlməyəcək.

Sağlam insanlara nootropların təsiri demək olar ki olmur, bir neçə əks göstərişləri saymazsaq. Ümumiyyətlə niyə sağlam bir insana təstiqlənməmiş və əssasız preparatlar lazım olsun?! Əgər siz boynunuzdan yuxarı tullanmaq istəyirsinizsə, beyninizi mümkün olan üsullarla inkişaf elətdirin:

  • Oxuyun, bu zaman beyniniz məşq edəcək
  • Dincəlin, bu zaman stimulyatorların köməyinə ehtiyyac qalmayacaq
  • İdmanla məşğul olun, o, qan dövranını yaxşılaşdıran bütün dərmanları əvəz edəcək
  • Sosial şəbəkələrdən az istifadə edin, beynin məhsuldarlığı nootroplarsız artacaq

Əgər siz diqqətinizi cəmləyə bilmirsinizsə, heç bir şey xatırlamırsınızsa, pis yatır və məlumatları çətinliklə qavrayırsınızsa, rejiminizi dəyişin və həkimə müraciyət edin. O, sizə probləmlərin həllində köməklik göstərəcək.

 

Mənbə: psychologist.ru

 

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