Yunan mifologiyası: Homer və Hesiodos kimdir?

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Qədim Yunanıstanın fəlsəfəöncəsi ənənəsində dastanlar da böyük rol oynamışdır. Onları şairlər və ədiblər yazırdılar. Onlardan biri Homer  (Omiros)  (yun. Ὅμηρος, m. ö.11 VIII yüzillik) olmuşdur. Onun kimliyi haqqında bilgilər olduqca azdır. Hətta, onun anadan olduğu yer də dəqiq bilinməməkdədir. Homer “İliada” (yun. Ἰλιάς) və “Odisseia” (yun. Ὀδύσσεια) adlanan dastanların yazarı olmuşdur. Onlarda yunanların mifoloji və dini dünyagörüşü əks olunmuşdur. Bu dastanlarda insan həyatı və tarixi olaylar mifik varlıqların və tanrıların həyatı ilə bağlılıqda təsvir olunmuşdur. Olumpus dağında yaşayan tanrılar savaşlarda və başqa hadisələrdə tarixin gedişinə və insanların həyatına qarışmış, başqa mifoloji varlıqlar isə insanlarla birlikdə müxtəlif hadisələrdə iştirak etmişdirlər. “İliada”da Troya savaşı ilə bağlı hadisələrdən, “Odisseyada” isə bu savaşdan sonra Odisseus (yun. Ὀδυσσεύς) adında bir igidin vətəninə qayıtması zamanı rast gəldiyi hadisələrdən söhbət açılmışdır. Hər iki dastan sonralar formalaşan antik və Avropa ədəbiyyatının formalaşmasında böyük rol oynamışdır. Homerin əsərlərində fəlsəfi baxımdan əhəmiyyətli məqamlar yoxdur, bu əsərlər yunanların qədim inanclarını və dünyagörüşünü əks etdirir.

Bred Pittin də rol aldığı məşhur Troya filmi İliada dastanının əsasında çəkilmişdir.

Filmdə istifadə olunan Troya atı . Halhazırda Türkiyənin Çanaqqala şəhərindədir. Fotoqraf : Anton Lefterov

Bununla bərabər fəlsəfəöncəsi yunan ədəbiyyatının ilklərindən biri də Hesiodos (yun. Ἡσίοδος, m. ö. VIII – VII yüzilliklər) olmuşdur. O Aeolis (1) bölgəsində anadan olmuş, sonra Beotiada (2) yaşamışdır. Rəvayətlərə görə ona şairliyi nimflər vermişdirlər. Həçinin o didaktik (öyrədici)  şeirin ilk yaradıcılarından biri hesab edilir.

Hesiodosun olduğu iddia edilən bürünc büst halhazırda İtaliyadadır- National Archaeological Museum of Naples

Hesiodosun günümüzə çatmış əsərlərindən biri “Əməklər və günlər”dir (yun. Ἔργα και Ἡμέραι). Bu əsərdə onunla vərəsəlik məsələləri barəsində məhkəməyə çıxan qardaşı Persusa nəsihətlər verilir. Ona deyilir ki, pulla alınmış hakimlərə ümid bəsləməsin, işlərini öz əməyi ilə yerinə yetirsin. Daha sonra burada əkinçi və gəmiçilərin əməyindən söhbət açılmışdır. Bu əsərdə ilk tarixi inkişaf mərhələləri də təsvir edilmiş, insanlığın öncə “qızıl dövrdə” yaşaması, sonra isə durumunun ağırlaşdığı və həyatın çətinləşdiyi barəsində fikirlər irəli sürülmüşdür. Buna görə də mənbələrdə Hesiodosu ilk iqtisadiyyat tarixçisi kimi də  qələmə verirlər.  Əsərdə həmçinin  çoxlu nəsihət, deyim, atalar sözləri və miflər də vardır. Hesiodosun daha bir tanınmış əsəri “Teoqonia” (3) (yun. Θεογονία) adlanır. Bu əsərdə o yunanların arasında tanrılar haqqında dolaşan müxtəlif rəvayətləri sistemləşdirməyə, onları məntiqi ardıcıllığa gətirməyə çalışmış- dır. Bu dastan yunanların ilk mifoloji əsərlərindən biri hesab edilir. Əsərdə tanrılar, titanlar, igidlər haqqında bəhs olunur. İlk olaraq Qarışıqlıq (Xaos) olmuşdur( Hesioddan fərqli olaraq orfizm təliminə görə ilk tanrı  zaman tanrısı – Kronosdur  , Xaos isə onun oğludur) . Ondan Gecə, yer tanrıcası Qaia (4) , yeraltı məkan Tartarus və sevgi tanrısı Eros yaranmışdır. Gün gecədən doğmuşdur. Qaiadan göy tanrısı Uranus və dəniz Pontus yaranmışdır. Sonra Qaia Uranusla evlənmişdir. Bu evlilikdən titanlar adlandırılan ilk tanrılar, təpəgözlər və əlli başlı div olan hekatonxeirlər (yun. εκατογχείρες) doğulmuşdurlar. Bundan sonra müxtəlif nimflər və başqa mifoloji varlıqlar yaranır. Tanrılar zaman-zaman bir-biri ilə hakimiyyət uğrunda savaşmışdırlar. Öncə titanlar Uranusu devirmiş, sonra isə onlara Zeus qalib gəlmişdir. Bundan sonra titanlar Tartarusa atılmış, Zeus isə baş tanrı olmuşdur. Apollon, Artemis (5) , Hermes və başqa məşhur tanrılar ondan törə mişdirlər. Dionisus və Herakles isə Zeusun insan cinsindən olan arvadlarından doğulmuş oğulları idilər. İnsanların yaradılması haqqında Hesiodos heç nə yazmamışdır. Ancaq, onun adına yazılan bəzi yazılarda onları Prometeus adlı bir titan torpaqdan yaratmış, yunan tanrıcası Afina isə onlara nəfəs vermişdir. Öncə tanrılar insanları sevməmiş, onları incitmişdirlər. Hətta, Zeus insanlara odu belə verməmiş, onu gizlətmişdir. Ancaq Prometeus onu oğurlayıb insanlara vermişdir. Buna görə də, Zeus qəzəblənərək Pandora adında qadına bir qutu verərək onu insanların yanına göndərmişdir. Ancaq yolda Pandora qutunu açmış və dünyaya şər və bədbəxtliklər yayılmışdır. Bundan sonra insanlar tanrılara ibadət etməyə başlamış və münasibətlər düzəlmişdir.  Biz Pandora misalında qadının bədbəxtlik elçisi kimi qələmə verildiyini müşahidə edə bilərik . Bu da bizə  kişi hegemoniyasının fəlsəfədən öncə yarandığını göstərir. Bundan sonra insanlar tanrılara ibadət etməyə başlamış və münasibətlər düzəlmişdir. Aşağıdakı şəkildə Hesiodosun mifologiyası ümumiləşdirilmişdir.

 

hesiodos theogonia ile ilgili görsel sonucu
1- Çağdaş Türkiyənin Ege dənizinin sahillərində yerləşən ərazidir.

2 – Çağdaş Yunanıstanın mərkəzində, Peloponessus yarımadasının şimalında yerləşən tarixi vilayətdir.1- Çağdaş Türkiyənin Ege dənizinin sahillərində yerləşən ərazidir.

3 – Tanrıların yaranması haqqında inanclar toplusudur.

4 – Rus ədəbiyyatında onun adı Geya (Гея) kimi səslənir.

5 – Rus ədəbiyyatında onun adı Artemida (Артемида) kimi səslənir.

 

Mənbələr:

  1. ^ Rothbard, Murray N., Economic Thought Before Adam Smith: Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought, Vol. 1, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Publishing, 1995, pg. 8; Gordan, Barry J., Economic analysis before Adam Smith: Hesiod to Lessius (1975), pg. 3; Brockway, George P., The End of Economic Man: An Introduction to Humanistic Economics, fourth edition (2001), pg 128.
  2. A. Əlizadə – Antik Fəlsəfə tarixi

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