Musiqinin insanı keçmişə aparması və bunun elmi açıqlaması

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Muqisi incəsənətin ən geniş yayılmış və hamı tərəfindən anlaşılan, bilinən bir növüdür. Tarixçilərə görə artıq 50 min ildir ki, insan musiqi ilə tanışdır. Bu da musiqinin insanın həyatında geniş bir yeri olduğunu göstərir. Bəzi musiqiləri dinlədiyimiz  zaman  bizə keçmişdəki bir anı xatırlatdığı hamımızın  şahid olduğu bir hadisədir. Yaxşı, bəs bu tam olaraq necə baş verir və bunun arxasında yatan elmi açıqlama nədir? Görəsən, musiqi, həqiqətən də bizi keçmişdəki bir ana aparacaq qədər güclüdürmü? Gəlin elmin bu baradə nə dediyinə  baxaq.

Bir xatirəni şüurlu bir şəkildə düşündüyümüz  zaman daha əvvəl xatırlamadığımız bir sıra detalları xatırlaya, emosional olmasa da həmin hadisələri beynimizdə təkrar yaşaya  bilərik. Həyatımızın müəyyən bir dövründə dinlədiyimiz musiqisi eşidəndə isə xatırlama tamamilə təhtəlşüur bir səviyyədə baş verir və bu bizə çox vaxt güclü duyğular yaşatmaq gücünə malikdir.

Aparılan yeni bir araşdırma musiqi və yaddaş arasındakı bu güclü əlaqəni araşdırır.

Bu araşdırmanın aparılmasının  məqsədi, musiqinin sözü gedən təsirini müalicə edici məqsədlərlə istifadə etməkdir. Musiqinin güclü təsirinin ağlını itirmək, unutqanlıq və depressiya kimi problemlərə həll tapa biləcəyi düşünülür.

Yaddaş üzərində araşdırmalar aparan  David C. Rubin, musiqinin yaddaş üzərindəki təsirini  Homer  dastanlarını nümunə göstərərək açıqlayır.

“İliada” və “Odisseya” dastanlarının  şifahi formada illər boyu dildən-dilə ötürüldüyünü, yaddan çıxarılmadığını araşdıran Rubin, bu əsərlərin şeir formasında olmasının və insanlar tərəfindən mahnı formasında oxunmasının onların unudulmamasında böyük bir  payının olduğunu  düşünür.

Beynimizin  yaddaşla əlaqəli olan qisimləri frontal korteks və hipokampusdur. Bu iki qisim, hər an yeni məlumatlar qəbul edir və yaşadığımız hər şeyi yaddaşa həkk edir. Hipokampus zaman keçdikcə zəifləyir və 80 yaşındaykən sinir hüceyrələrinin təxminən 20% məhv olur.

Beynimizin bu qisimləri bir film kamerası kimi bütün yaşadıqlarımızı qeyd etsə də, biz yaşadığımız hər şeyi eyni dəqiqliklə xatırlaya bilmirik. Hətta, bəzilərini xatırlamaq heç mümkün də olmur.  Bu anda musiqinin gücü dövriyyəyə girir. Onun bu yerdə faydası ondan ibarətdir ki, öz ritm və qafiyəsi ilə  beynimizdə gizli qalmış bu xatirələri asanca çağırmaq qabiliyyətinə malikdir. Qısası,  bizə xatirələri xatırladan şey musiqinin strukturu olur. Mahnının melodiyası, ritmi və ehtiva etdiyi sözlər, zehinimizdə müəyyən şəkillər canlandıraraq özümüzü təkrarən keçmişdəki bir anda hiss etməmizi təmin edir.

Mövzu  üzərində işləyən nevropatoloqlar da müəyyən bir melodiyayla əzbərlənmiş sözlərin xatırlanmasının hər zaman daha asan olduğunu deyirlər.

Bunun niyə belə olduğu, yəni ritm və melodiya ehtiva edən sözlərin necə olub da daha yaxşı xatırlandığı tam olaraq bilinmir. Ancaq çox insan üçün etibarlı olan bu vəziyyəti öz üzərinizdə də test etməyiniz mümkündür. İlk ingiliscə öyrənməyə başladığınız illəri xatırlayın və əlifbanı öyrətmək üçün sizə əzbərlətdikləri mahnını oxumağa çalışın: “Ey, biy siy …” Bu mahnını neçə ildir oxumursunuz? Amma buna rəğmən yenə də hamısını çətinlik çəkmədən xatırladığınız.

Yaddaşın açıq və qapalı olmaqla iki növü var və aysberqin görünməyən hissəsini qapalı yaddaşımız təşkil edir.

Robert Snyder, yaddaşımızın böyük qisminin təhtəlşüurunda yatdığını deyir və Alzheimer kimi xəstəliklərin açıq yaddaşa təsir etdiyini, buna rəğmən təhtəlşüurunda yatan yaddaşın yox olmadığını, yalnız bu yaddaşdakı məlumatlara çatmaq imkanımızın məhdud olduğunu deyir.

Psixoloqlar, həyatımızdakı ilk təcrübələrin musiqi tərəfindən daha asan canlandırıla biləcəyini deyirlər.

 

Ailənizdən ayrı ilk səyahət etməyiniz, ilk aşiq olmağınız, başqa bir şəhərdə ilk yaşayışınız kimi əhəmiyyətli xatirələr, o dövrdə dinlənilən musiqilərlə daha böyük bir bağ qurur və o musiqiləri duyduğunuz zaman hiss etdiyiniz zehni və emosional intevsivlik, sonradan yaşadıqlarınıza nisbətlə çox daha güclü olur.

Ayrıca musiqi, yaddaşı hərəkətə gətirən digər xəbərdar edicilərə nisbətlə daha çox ictimai xatirələri canlandırır.

Yazıçı Cretien van Campen, iylərin daha çox şəxsi xatirələri və insanın o dövrdə daxili dünyasında yaşadıqlarını hərəkətə gətirdiyini, musiqinin isə tam əksinə ictimai xatirələri, dostlarla və ya ailəylə keçirilən zamanları canlandırdığını dilə gətirir.

Üstəlik musiqinin sahib olduğu bu gücün müəyyən xəstəliklərin müalicəsində müvəffəqiyyətli olduğu da sübut edildi.

Beyin xəsarəti sonrası insanın yaddaş problemi yaşadığı bilinir. Musiqi isə itən bu xatirələri geri gətirə bilir. Yaddaş pozğunluğundan əziyyət çəkən insanların gənclik illərində dinlədikləri mahnılar və xatirələrini təkrar canlandıra bildikləri görülür. Depressiyayla mübarizə aparan insanlarda isə anın içində çox-çox itmə və bütün həyatlarını bir itirmə kimi görmə meyli olduğu üçün keçmişdə dinlədikləri mahnılar həyatlarına dair fərqli bir dünyagörüşü inkişaf etdirmələrinə kömək edə bilir. Qısacası, musiqinin gücü insanları yaxşıyaşdıra bilir.

 

Mənbə: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140417-why-does-music-evoke-memories

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