Sosial psixologiya nəyi öyrənir?

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Sosial psixologiya nəyi öyrənir?  Ona necə tərif vermək olar?  Sosial psixologiyanın onlarla tərifi var.  Bəzi müəlliflərin fikrincə, sosial psixologiya fərdlərin davranışını sosial stimulların funksiyası kimi öyrənir.  Teqfel isə hesab edirdi ki,  sosial psixologiya insanın rabitələrini və sosial mühitdəki dəyişiklikləri öyrənir.  Q. Ollport Amerika sosial psixologiyasının inkişafı prosesini ümumiləşdirərək 60-cı illərin axırlarında göstərir ki, sosial psixologiya başqa insanların, fərdin fikirlərinə, hisslərinə və davranışlarına necə təsir göstərdiyini öyrənən elmdir.  Son zamanlar D. Mayersin məşhur tərif diqqəti daha çox cəlb edir. Bu tərifə görə, sosial psixologiya insanlarln bir-birinə necə təsir göstərdiyini və bir – birlərinə necə münasibət bəslədiklərini öyrənən elmdir.  Gəlin, bu tərifi açıqlayaq.

D. Mayersin tərifində 3 istiqamət müəyyənləşdirilir.

1- İnsanlar bir-biri haqqında necə fikirləşirlər?

2- Onlar bir-birlərinə necə təsir göstərir?

3- İnsanlar bir-birlərinə necə münasibət bəsləyir?

Sosial psixologiya bu aktual problemi açıqlayanda 3 kateqoriyaya-  1- şəxsiyyət,  2- Qrup,  3- ünsiyyət  kateqoriyalarına əsaslanır. Hər bir sosial qrup və kollektivdə isə insanlar şəxsiyyət kimi iştirak edirlər.  Şəxsiyyət problemini mahiyyət etibarilə bütün ictimai elmlər, ilk növbədə isə ümumi psixologiya öyrənir. Lakin  şəxsiyyət probleminin elə məsələləri var ki, onları öyrənmək sosial psixologiyanın vəzifəsidir.  Sosial psixologiyada şəxsiyyət müəyyən sistem, qrup, kollektivdə öyrənilir.  Sosial psixologiya həm böyük, həm kiçik qrupları öyrənir.  Makromühit və mikromühit.  Və nəhayət ünsiyyət isə bütün sosial – psixoloji  hadisələrin mənbəyini təşkil edir. Ünsiyyət müxtəlif istiqamətlərdə,  kommunikativ ( informasiya mübadiləsi) , interaktiv  ( qarşılıqlı təsir) və perseptiv ( insanların bir-birini qavraması)  baxımından təhlil olunur. Ünsiyyət və qarşılıqlı  təsir real surətdə qruplarda baş verir.

Mənbəə : Ə.Ə.Əlizadə ( sosial psixologiya)

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