MÜSTƏQİL FİLOSOFLAR:Empedokl və Anaksaqor kimdir?

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Müstəqil filosofların ən tanınmışlarından biri olan Empedokl (Rusca səslənmədə verilmişdir. Dünya dillərinin çoxunda onu latın səslənməsinə uyğun olaraq “Empedocles” adlandırırlar.) (yun. Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, təxminən m. ö. 490 – 430) cənubi  İtaliyanın Aqraqant şəhərindən idi. Tədqiqatlara görə onun ziddiyyətli şəxs olduğu qeyd edilir. Rəvayətlərə görə, o, özünü tanrı elan edərək püskürən vulkana atmışdır. Onun “Təbiət haqqında” və “Təmizlənmələr” adlı kitablarından günümüzə bəzi fraqmentlər gəlib çatmışdır. O, Elea fəlsəfi məktəbinin nümayəndəsi olan Parmenid kimi varlığın əbədiliyini və dəyişməzliyini iddia edirdi. Ancaq Parmenid bütün varlığı tamlıq şəklində görürdüsə, Empedokl növlərin də mövcud olmasını inkar etmirdi. Deməli, onun fikrincə, dünyada həm tam, həm də növlər vardır. Empedokla görə hər şeyin əsasında od, hava, su və torpaq durur . Hər şey bu ünsürlərin birləşmə- sindən yaranır. Şeylərin məhv olması isə onların dağılması deməkdir. Dünyanı heç kəs yaratmamışdır, çünki yoxluqdan varlıq yarana bilməz. Empedokl fəlsəfəsində bir-biri ilə savaşan Sevgi və Nifrət dualizmi (Dualizm (lat. dualis – ikili) – istənilən sahənin başlanğıcında bir-birinə zidd olan iki başlanğıcın (substansiyanın) durması haqqında nəzəriyyədir)  vardır ki , o da bu ünsürləri hərəkətə gətirir. Öncə Sevgi hökmranlıq edir. O bütün dünyanı birləşdirir, tamlıqda saxlayır. Sonra Nifrət gəlir, o isə hər şeyi parçalayır, ayırır və bunun nəticəsində növlər yaranır. Bu proses də daim təkrarlanmaqdadır. Tədqiqatçılara görə Empedoklun bu düşüncələri ilə Zərdüştilik arasında bənzərliklər vardır. Belə ki, Zərdüştilikdə də xeyrin substansiyası (Substansiya (lat. substantia – əsasında duran şey) – mövcudluğu özü- özündən doğan və varlığı başqa şeylərdən asılı olmayan başlanğıcdır.) olan Hörmüzün şərin təcəssümü olan Əhrimənlə qarşıdurması dünyanın əsasını təşkil edir. Empedokla görə, canlılar cansızlardan yaranmışdır. Öncə ayrı-ayrı cansız bədən üzvləri yaranmış, sonra Sevginin hakimiyyəti gücləndikcə onlar birləşmiş və beləliklə, canlılar yaranmışdır. Sonra canlılar arasında qarşıdurma olmuş və bunun nəticəsində ən güclüləri yaşamış, zəiflər isə məhv olmuşdur. Burada isə “təbii seçmə” nəzəriyyəsinin ilk təzahürləri müşahidə edilir ki, onu XIX əsrdə Çarlz Darvin öz bioloji nəzəriyyəsində istifadə etmişdir .Bundan başqa Empedokl belə bir fikir irəli sürmüşdür ki, fəzada işığın yayılması üçün ona müəyyən bir vaxt lazımdır. İşığın surəti o qədər böyükdür ki, biz onu duyğu orqanlarımızın sərhədlərini aşdığı üçün izləyə bilmirik. Bu fikirlər isə yalnız müasir dövrdə elmlərin inkişaf etməsindən sonra təsdiq edilmişdir . Empedokla görə, ətraf mühiti qavrama (dərketmə) prosesi bədənin orqanlarının quruluşundan asılıdır. Onlar qavranılan obyektə uyğun olmalıdır. Bu uyğunluq olarsa, ətrafdakı şeylər dərk edilir, uyğunluq olmazsa, edilmir.

 

 

 

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Anaksaqor  (Rusca səslənmədə verilmişdir. Dünya dillərinin çoxunda onu latın səslənməsinə uyğun olaraq “Anaxagoras” adlandırırlar.) (yun. Ἀναξαγόρας, təxminən m. ö. 500 – 428) antik dövrün müstəqil filosoflarından biri olmuşdur. O, Klazomenai şəhərindən idi. O, Afina hökmdarı Periklin yaxın adamı olmuşdur. Ancaq sonra onun düşmənləri Anaksaqoru tanrılara inanmamaqda günahlandırmışdırlar. Səbəbsə bu idi ki, o günəşi tanrı deyil, adi planet hesab edirdi. Hətta o, bundan sonra sürgün belə edilmişdi. Ümumiyyətlə, Anaksaqorun fikrinə görə yunan əsatirlərini hərfi deyil, məcazi mənada başa düşmək lazımdır. Bu məsələdə onun mövqeyi Ksenofanla üst-üstə düşürdü. Anaksaqora görə yer yastı olaraq hava üzərində durmuşdur. Ulduzlar efirin fırlanması nəticəsində yaranan daşlardır. Günəş Peloponnes yarımadası həcmində böyük bir daşdır . Dünyanı idarə edən qüvvə isə taledir. O həm də demişdir ki, ağda qaranın, qarada ağın olduğu kimi hər şeydə başqa şeyin əlaməti vardır. Anaksaqorun məqsədi yunan fəlsəfəsində hallandırılan dünyanın əbədilik ideyasını həqiqi duyğulara uyğunlaşdırmaq idi. Onun fikrincə dünya sonsuz sayda “toxumlardan” ibarətdir və onlar sonsuzluğa qədər bölünürlər. Ancaq bundan başqa o hər hansı bir fövqəl gücün olmasını da zəruri hesab edirdi. Çünki bu dünyanı hərəkətə gətirən bir güc olmalıdır. Bu gücü isə o, “Əql” (yun. Νούς) adlandırmışdır. Anaksaqorun kosmoqoniyası ondan ibarətdir ki, öncə Əql olmuşdur. Sonra o, başqa şeylərlə əlaqəyə girmiş, nəticədə dairəvi hərəkət yaranmışdır. Öncə bir olan varlıq parçalanmışdır. Quru nəmdən, işıq qaranlıqdan, isti isə soyuqdan ayrılmışdır. Beləliklə, iki aləm: odlu efir və hava yaranmışdır. Sonra qatlaşma prosesi başlamış və bunun nəticəsində buludlar yaranmışdır. Sonra buludlardan su, sudan yer, yerdən daşlar əmələ gəlmişdir. Bununla da Anaksaqorun (eləcə də Empedoklun) materializmi sonralar Levkipp və Demokritin maddəçi fəlsəfəsi üçün zəmin yaratmışdır.

 

MƏNBƏ:Aydın Əlizadə – Antik Yunan Fəlsəfəsi

 

Əlavə oxu: Qədim Yunan Filosofları

 

86 ŞƏRH

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