Bioloji ölümsüzlük

87

         İnsanlar demək olar ki, özlərini dərk etdikləri gündən ölümsüzlüyün sirrini tapmağa can atır. Bu istək öz əksini əfsanələrdə, əsatirlərdə də tapır. Himalay dağlarındakı cavanlaşdıran bulaqlardan sehrli piyalələrə qədər. Qədim yunanıstanda tanrıların nektar adlanan balabənzər maddə sayəsində ölümsüz olduqlarına və nektar sayəsində insanların da ölümsüz ola biləcəyinə inanılırdı. Persephone’nun qaçırılması ilə bağlı olan mifdə Demetranın Keleosun oğlu Demophon’u nektarla ölümsüz etməyə çalışması təsvir olunur. Həmçinin qədim Misirdə ölümün soyuq reallığı ilə mübarizə aparmaq üçün meyitin 70 günlük mumyalama prasedurunu yerinə yertirirdilər. Bir çox xalqlardan insanların marağına səbəb olmuş elm və mistisizmi özündə birləşdirən simyanın (əlkimya) təməlində istənilən metalı qızıla çevirən və ölümsüzlük iksiri hazırlanan fəlsəfə daşını tapmaq durur.  Bəzi rəvayətlərə görə isə Nicolas Flamel adlı simyaçı fəlsəfə daşını tapmış və ölümsüzlüyə qovuşmuşdur. O, 1418-ci ildə ölmüş olsa da qəbrində tapılmayıb və 1700-cü illərdə onu görüldüyü iddia edilir amma əlbəttə ki, bu yalnız rəvayətdir.

           İnsanlar min illərdir ölümsüzlüyü axtarsa da bu əslində təbiətdə mövcud olan bir şeydir. Belə ki, Turritopsis dohrnii adlanan meduza növü çoxdan bu imkana sahibdir. Bu meduzalar öz həyat siklini çevirərək onu təzədən yaşaya bilir.

Laboratoriya şəraitində yetişdirilən meduzalar üzərində aparılmış tədqiqatlar göstərir ki, Turritopsis dohrnii bu prosesi bir dəfə yox dəfələrlə təkrarlamaq qabiliyyətinə sahibdir. Meduzalar yumurta-sürfə-polip-yetkin meduza sırası ilə olan həyat siklinə sahibdir və yetkin meduza formasında olan Turritopsis dohrnii geri- polip dövrünə qayıdır və beləliklə “qocalmır”.

            Bitkilər aləmində isə bristlecone şam ağacı belə canlılardan hesab olunur. Bu bitkinin 5000 ildən çox yaşaması məlumdur. 2013-cü ildə bitkilərin bölünmə zonasına nəzarət edən arabidopsis adlı protein tapıldı və bristlecone şam ağacının “ölümsüzlük” sirrinin də bu və ya quruluşca buna bənzər proteinlə əlaqədar olduğu düşünülür. Adı çəkilən canlılardan başqa “qocalmamaq” qabiliyyətinə Sebastes aleutianus, Chrysemys picta, Terrapene carolina, Pinus longaeva, Arctica islandica kimi digər canlılar da sahibdir. Bəzi krevetka növləri belə böyüsə də qocalmırlar.

Ölçüsü böyük olan krevetka yaşı böyük ancaq hələ də cavan olandır. Bu cümlə absurd səslənsə də doğrudur. Yaş almaq bu krevetkalara insanlara olduğu kimi təsir etmir, onlar həmçinin seksual cəhətdən belə daha aktiv olurlar. Bu sıra heyvanlara orta məktəb biologiya kursundan tanış olan hidralar və planari növləri də daxildir. Hidralar üzərində aparılan 4 illik araşdırmadan sonra hüceyrə səviyyəsində belə 4 il əvvəlki hidradan fərqləndirən “qocalıq əlaməti” müşahidə edilməyib. Bu heyvanlar inanılmaz regenerasiya qabiliyyətləri sayəsində demək olar ki, ölümsüzdürlər.

Hidra adını da elə yunan mifalogiyasında başı kəsildikdə yerinə ikisi böyüyən və Heraklın 2-ci tapşırığının əsası olan su nəhəngindən alır. Hidraların müxtəlif hüceyrə qruplarının yaranmasında 3 növ kök hüceyrənin iştirakı aydınlaşdırılmışdır. Bu 3 üç növ hüceyrə üçün ortaq olan bir protein- FoxO-nun hidraların bu xüsusiyyətində rolu olduğu aydınlaşdırılıb. Görünür ki, bu protein ümumiyyətlə heyvanlar aləmində universal “anti-ageing” xüsusiyyətini özündə daşıyır. İnsanlar da bu proteinin müxtəlif formalarını daşıya bilir və bəzi formalar 100 yaşdan çox yaşayan insanlar üçün ortaqdır.
Amma təbiətdəki hər bir uyğunlaşma kimi “ölümsüzlük” də nisbi xarakter daşıyır. Adı çəkilən heyvanlar “qocalıqdan” ölməyə bilər amma hər hansı xəstəlikdən və ya bir yırtıcı tərəfindən yeyilərək ölə bilərlər.
İnsanın öz bədənində də ölümsüzlük qazanmış hüceyrələr tapıla bilir lakin bu xoşagələn hal hesab olunmur. Bunu açıqlamaq üçün hüceyrə bölünməsinə və xromosomun quruluşuna nəzər salmaq lazımdır. Hər bir xromosom telomer adlanan nukleotid ardıcıllığı ilə qurtarır və telomerlər xromosomları destruksiyadan və bir-birlərilə birləşmədən qoruyur həmçinin bölünmədə iştirak edir. Hər hüceyrə bölünməsində telomerlərdə yüngülcə qısalma müşahidə olunur ki, bu da  Hayflick limitini müəyyənləşdirir. Belə ki, telomerin qısalması müəyyən həddə çatdıqda artıq bölünmə mümkün olmur. Və belə hüceyrə apoptoz ( proqramlaşdırılmış ölüm) yolu ilə kənarlaşdırılır. Müxtəlif təsirlərin nəticəsində normada bölünmədə iştirak edən preonkogen genlər aktivləşir, belə hüceyrələrdə telomeraza fermenti sayəsində immortalizasiya ( ölümsüzlük ) qazanır və p450 geni də zədələndiyindən apoptoz mexanizmi də işə düşmür, bölünmə qabiliyyəti nəzarətdən çıxmış olan hüceyrə Hayflick limitinə tabe olmur. Bu da onkoloji proseslərin əsasını təşkil edir.
İnsanların ölümsüzlüyə olan marağı bu məqsədə çatmağa heç bir xeyri olmasa da həyat şəraitini yaxşılaşdıracaq, düşüncə tərzini formalaşdıracaq və indiki cəmiyyətin formalaşdırılmasına təkan verəcək proseslərə  təməl yaratmışdır. Belə ki, mumyalama sayəsində ilk anatomik biliklər toplanıb və fəlsəfə daşını tapmağa çalışan əlkimyaçılar daşı tapa bilməsələr də metalların saflaşdırılması üsullarını, bir çox elementləri, boyaq maddələrini və s. kəşflər edərək bu günkü kimyanın təməlini formalaşdırmışlar.

İstifadə edilmiş mənbələr:
1. http://www.rd.com/culture/animals-that-live-forever/
2. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150622-can-anything-live-forever
3. http://www.cracked.com/article_20055_6-unassuming-animals-that-are-secretly-immortal.html
4. http://immortal-jellyfish.com

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