Neçə cür “Ay” var?

96
A photography of the stonehenge by full moon

Aya bir neçə tərəfdən baxmaq olar. Ulduzlar arasında onun şərti yerini müəyyənləşdirsək, bir də bu nöqtədə o, 27 gün 7 saat 43 dəqiqədən sonra olacaq. Bu dövr siderik ay adlanır (latınca “sideris” – ulduz deməkdir).
Ayın öz şəklini necə dəyişməsinə diqqət yetirə bilərik. Bu dəyişikliyə – Ay fazaları deyilir. İlk faza – təzə aydır. Bir təzə aydan o birinə qədər 29,5 sutka keçir. Bu cür ay – sinodik ay adlanır.
Ancaq Ay öz şəklini nə qədər dəyişsə də, bizim gördüyümüz həmişə onun bir tərəfidir. Bəzən biz onu bədirlənmiş şəkildə – tam disk kimi, bəzənsə bir hissəsini – oraq şəklini görürük. Ayın öz oxu ətrafında fırlanma sürəti ilə Yer ətrafında fırlanma sürəti eyni olduğundan biz onun həmişə bir tərəfini görürük.
Astronomlar başqa “ay”lardan da istifadə edirlər. Məsələn “əjdaha” ayı. Ayın orbitində ekliptika müstəvisi ilə şərti kəsişmə nöqtələri var. Bunlara Ay düyünləri deyilirlər. Ayın bu düyünlər ətrafında dövr etməsi 27 gün 5 saat 5 dəqiqəyə baş verir. Bu isə əjdaha ayı adlanır. Əgər bu düyünlər arasında şərti xətt çəksək, görərik ki, o, tədricən Ayın hərəkət istiqamətinə tərəf dönür. 18,6 il ərzində Ay düyünləri tam dövr edir.
Maraqlıdır ki, əjdaha ayı anlamı astrologiyadan götürülüb. Burada düyünlərdən biri Şimal, yaxud Əjdaha Başı, o birisi isə Cənub, yaxud Əjdaha quyruğu adlanır.
Anomalistik ay isə – Ayın Yerə ən yaxın nöqtəsi olan perigey ətrafında tam dövrünə deyilir. Bu – 27 gün 13 saat 18 dəqiqəyə bərabərdir.
Bütün bu ayların müxtəlif uzunluqda olması Günəşin təsiri ilə bağlıdır.

 

Mənbə: Ayna ensiklopediyası.

96 ŞƏRH

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