Zoopsixologiya və botanikada qrup effektinin açıqlanması

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1944-cü ildən etibarən zoologiyada qrup effekti terminindən istifadə olunur. Belə bir cəhət alimlərin diqqətini çoxdan cəlb etmişdi ki, arılar, qarışqalar və bunlara bənzər həşəratlar yalnız birlikdə normal yaşaya bilirlər. Təcrid olunmuş həşəratlar hətta əlverişli mühitdə və qida bol olduqda belə tezliklə məhv olurlar.

Bu müşahidələr zoologiyada qrup effektlərinin-“bir reaksiyalarının” ( R. Şoven)  öyrənilməsi ilə nəticələndi. Zoopsixologiyada və etologiyanın nailiyyətləri sayəsində bu anlayış daha da genişləndirildi.

Zoopsixologiyada və etologiyada “inkişaf sürətinin və metabolizmin müxtəlif göstəricilərinin qrup həyatından asılı olduğu bütün hallar”  qrup effektinə aid edilir. Ali heyvanlarda qrup effektinin ən başlıca göstəricisi davranış reaksiyaları, eləcə də hormonal və cinsi sistem fəallığının dəyişilməsidir.  ( Y. Titov,  R. Şoven)

Son zamanlar qrup effekti terminindən botanikada da istifadə olunmağa başlamışdır. Bitkilərdə qrup effekti müxtəlif müəlliflər tərəfindən təsvir olunmuşdur. ( Y. Titov)

Qrup anlayışının həddindən artıq genişlənməsi, qrup effektlərinin heyvanlar və bitkilər aləmində müşahidə olunması və digər faktorlarla əlaqədar olaraq müasir sosial – psixologiyada sosial qrup terminindən istifadə olunur.

Sosial qrupa verilmiş təriflərdən bəziləri ilə tanış olaq :

– Sadə dildə bu söz fərdlərin kifayət qədər sabit məcmusunu ifadə edir və bir çox sosial psixoloqlar sağlam düşüncənin bu konsepsiyasını qəbul edirlər

– Qrup fərdlərin elə məcmusudur ki,  burada hamının varlığından hər kəsin hər hansı bir tələbatının təmin olunması üçün istifadə edilir.

Müəyyən edilmişdir ( M. İ. Donsov) ki,  “sosial qrup” termini sosial – psixologiyada XVIII əsrdə əmələ gəlmişdir.

Halbuki onun sirrləri uzun müddət güzəran psixologiyasında açıqlanmış və təhlil olunmuşdur. İnsanların güzəran təcrübəsində sosial qrup özünəməxsus varlıq forması kimi əmələ gəlmiş və bərqərar olmuşdur. Qrupun,  onun xüsusi forması kimi ailənin kəşfi dünyanın ən böyük kəşflərindən biri olmuşdur.

Roy Baumeyster və Lirinin fikrincə insanların təkamül keçmişində onların arasında rabitələrin yaranması son dərəcə zəruri idi. İnsanlar bir – biri ilə birləşəndə ovçuluq etmək və bitkiləri yetişdirmək,  partnyorlar tapmaq və uşaqlara qayğı göstərmək asanlaşırdı. Bunun da nəticəsində,  müəlliflərə görə,  hər hansı qrupa məxsus olmaq tələbatı anadangəlmə olmuşdur və hər bir cəmiyyətdə özünü göstərir. Onların fikrincə, bütün mədəniyyətlərdə insanlar digərləri ilə qarşılıqlı münasibətlər formalaşdırmağa və bu münasibətlərin pozulmasının qarşısını almağa tələbat hiss edirlər.

 

Mənbə : Sosial – psixologiya  ( Ə. Əlizadə,  S. Bayramov)

47 ŞƏRH

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