Çirklənmiş sular: Burada ilanlar “qara geyinir”

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         Bəlkə də bu sürünənlər arasında məşhurlaşan dəbdən daha çox şey ifadə edir. Şəhər yaxınlığındaki həyata uyğunlaşmış dəniz ilanlarının böyük hissəsinin dərilərindəki tündləşmə ətraf mühitin çirkləndirilməsinin təkamül üstündəki təsirinin göstəricisi ola bilər.
Avstraliya və Yeni Kaledoniya sahillərində yaşayan tısbağabaş dəniz ilanlarının (Emydocephalus annulatus) bəzilərinin qara rəngli dərilərində solğun zolaqlar müşahidə olunur, digərləri isə tamamilə qara rəngdə dəriyə sahibdir. Sidney Universitetindən təkamül ekoloqu Rick Shine’in dediklərinə görə tədqiq olunmuş 15 zonada şəhərlərdən, hərbi zonalardan və əlbəttə sənaye şəhərlərindən uzaqda yerləşən riflərdə yaşayan dəniz ilanlarına nisbətən bu ərazilərə yaxın yaşayan dəniz ilanları içərisində qara dəriyə malik olanlar üstünlük təşkil edir.

        Shine və kolleqalarının akademik jurnal Current Biology ‘ə verdikləri məlumata görə bu ilanların dəriləri üzərində aparılan araşdırmalar belə piqment artıqlığının sənayeləşmə nəticəsində müşahidə edilən melanizm (melanizm- dəriyə rəng verən melanin piqmentinin ifrat artıqlığı) üçün bir nümunə ola bilər.

       Buna bənzər hal 19-cu əsrdə İngiltərədə də baş verib. Belə ki, əsasən açıq rəngdə olan güvələrdə sənayeləşmə ilə bağlı olaraq mühitin çirklənməsi və rənginin dəyişməsi nəticəsində tünd rəngli variantların tezliyi artmışdı. Beləliklə həşəratyeyən quşların diqqətini daha az cəlb edirdilər ( məktəb biologiyasında da uyğunlaşma üçün verilən misallardan biridir odur ki, sizə tanış gələ bilər).


Shine isə bunun daha çox Parisin qara-lələkli göyərçinləri ilə uyğunlaşdırır. Bu göyərçinlərdə tünd rəng uyğunlaşmanın əlaməti deyildi. Varşava Universitetindən Marion Chatelain’in dediklərinə görə şəhərin göyərçinlərinə zəriflik qatan melanin həmçinin sənayeləşmə ilə birlikdə miqdarı artan sink (Zn) kimi zəhərli metalların saxlanılmasında da rol oynayır. Bu göyərçinlər lələklərini tökdükləri vaxt yerinə çıxan lələklər daha da tünd rəngdə olur.
Sənayeləşmənin təsirini dəqiqləşdirmək üçün Avstraliya və Yeni Kaledoniyanın 15 şəhərindən 1450 ilandan nümunə götürüldü və əksəriyyətin 9 şəhər ətrafında olduğu müəyyənləşdirildi. Avstralyada hərbi bomba sınaq zonası yaxınlığından götürlülmüş 13 ilanın isə hamısı tamamilə qara olub.

         Dərilərdəki metal izlərini araşdırmaq üçün Goiran və Shine dəniz həyatındakı metal izlərini araşdıran La Rochelle Universitetindən Paco Bustamante’ni də tədqiqata daxil etdilər.

         Araşdırmalara əsasən isə ilanlarda olan metal konsentrasiyasının quşları və məməliləri öldürə biləcək qədər yüksək olduğu məlum oldu. Açıq zolaqlara nisbətən qara zolaqlarda sink və arsen kimi elementlərin izləri daha çoxdur.

         Chatelain’in dediklərinə görə çirklənmənin melanizmə səbəb olması hazırda ən məntiqəuyğun hipotezdir amma sonradan aparılacaq araşdırmalar o cümlədən genetik tədqiqatlar səbəbi daha dəqiq aşkar etməyə şərait yaradacaq.

Mənbə:

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/polluted-water-its-where-sea-snakes-wear-black

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