CERN də foton-foton toqquşmasının nəticələri.

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İşıq, fotonlar adlanan subatomik zərrəciklərdən ibarətdir, bu zərrəciklər təbiəticə dualizm (dalğa-zərrəcik)  xassəsinə malikdir.

Fotonlar bir-birindən uzaq məsafədə dolaşıq halda (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement) tapıla bilər, eləcədə onlar əks oluna, səpilə  və sına bilər. Bucaq  momentinə mailk olan bu zərrəciklərin, kütləsi yoxdur. Fotonların daha əvvəllər görünməmiş xassələrindən biri də, bir-biriylə toqquşduqda səpilməsi və  bilyard topları kimi istiqamətlərini dəyişdiyidir. Lakin CERN-də ATLAS təcrübəsi çərçivəsində aparılan bir araşdırmanın nəticəsi olaraq, bu qarşılıqlı təsirlərin ilk birbaşa dəlililəri təqdim edildi .

Bu hadisə Hans Heinrich EulerWerner Heisenberg tərəfindən 1936-cı ildə Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangianı ilə təsvir edilmişdir və “yüngül səpilmə” adlandırılmışdır. 1951-ci ildə hesablamalar Robert KarplusMaurice Neuman tərəfindən verilmişdir.

Məlumatların təhlili üçün böyük əməyi keçən DESY tədqiqatçısı Mateusz Dyndal, “Klassik elektrodinamikaya  görə, işıq şüaları dağılmadan bir-birindən keçməlidir (buna işıqin qarışmamazlıq prinsipi deyilir və optik kabellər vasitəsiylə informasiya ötürülməsinin əsasınk təşgil edir).

Amma kvant fizikasını işə daxil etdikdə, işıq yüngülcə səpilə  bilər, baxmayaraq ki, bu mümkün deyil “. ATLAS tədqiqatçısı Jon Butterwort, bu vəziyyəti bir-biri ilə toqquşan iki rezin topa bənzədir. Müşahidə 2015-ci ildə Böyük Hadron Collider (LHC) -nin işlək olduğunda, yəni toqquşan qurğuşun nüvələrindən alınan məlumatlardan əldə edilmişdir. Qurğuşun nüvələri , çox zaman toqquşmalarda istifadə edilən protonlardan daha ağır zərrəciklər idi. Bu isə, işə sıx bir foton buludunun da daxil olduğu deməkdir. Ağır ionlar adətən bir-biri ilə toqquşmurlar, amma fotonlar “səthlərin qarşılıqlı yaxınlaşması nəticəsində toqquşa bilər. 4 milyard hadisənin təhlili nəticəsində komanda 13 hadisə digərlərindən ayrıldığını müəyyənləşdirdi. Bu iki foton bir-birləri ilə qarşılıqlı əlaqə yaratmaq və bir-birinə keçmək deyil, onların istiqamətlərini dəyişdirə bildi.

Bu müşahidə işığın yüksək enerjidə öz-özü ilə qarşılıqlı əlaqəsi olduğunun ilk sübutu oldu. Bu fenomeni klassik elektromaqnetizm nəzəriyyəsinə görə acıqlamaq mümkün deyil, belə ki, kvant elektrodinamikasının bu hadisənin anlaşılması üçün köməklik göstərir. Buna görə də bu “tapıntı” bir mərhələdir. LHC-də növbəti aparıcı tədqiqat 2018-ci ilin sonunda baş tutacaq. Tədqiqat qrupu, nəticənin həssaslığını artırmaq üçün daha çox müşahidə əldə etməyi ümid edir. Bu tapıntılar yeni bir tətqiqat  sahəsinin ortaya çıxmasına gətirib çıxara bilər.

Mənbələr:
https://www.fizikist.com/cernde-foton-foton-sacilmasi-gozlemlendi/
http://www.sciencealert.com/light-continues-to-behave-really-weirdly-in-the-large-hadron-collider

 

94 ŞƏRH

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