Qeyri-etik eksperimentlər içərisindən balaca Albertə nə oldu ?

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Amerikalı psixoloq John Broadus Watson 8 aylıq Albert üzərində tarixinin ən utanc verici təcrübəsini etik qaydalara baxmayaraq edir. Sualına cavab axtararkən kiçik bir körpənin həyatını qaranlıqlaşdıran “Qorxma, həyatın sonradan əldə edilmiş bir refleksidir və ya doğuşdan var?” sualına cavab tapmaq üçün idi.

 

 

Davranış Psixologiyasının qurucusu Watson və köməkçisi Rosalie Rayner, Johns Hopkins uşaq bağçasında oynayan uşaqları uzaqdan öyrənməyə başlayır.

Ancaq “qorxu” ilə bağlı suallarına qəti cavab verə biləcək testlər etmək lazımdır. Onlar tədqiqat üçün icazə ala biləcək bir ailə axtarırlar. Nəticədə, 8 aylıq sağlam körpə olan Albert ilə təcrübə hazırlamaq qərarına gəldilər.

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Tarixi ən mühüm psixoloji təcrübələrdən biri sayılan Little Albert Experiment’a başlamadan əvvəl kiçik Albert üzərində bir neçə emosional test edilir.

Kiçik körpəyə ağ siçan, dovşan, kağız parçaları, parik və maska kimi ilk dəfə görəcəyi obyektləri və vəziyyətləri göstərirlər. Məqsəd Albertın bunlara qarşı qətiliklə əks-reaksiya vermədiyini görməkdir. Nəticədə Albert gördüyü hər hansı bir obyektə  qorxu reaksiyası  göstərmir; Hər şeyə gülür.

 

Bu testdən sonra Albertı boş bir otaqya aparırlar. Otaqda Albert oturan örtük və yataqdan başqa bir şey yoxdur. Daha sonra, Watson və köməkçisi Rayner, otaqdan ayrılaraq Albert üçün ağ laboratoriya siçanı verərək onu tək buraxdılar. Albert, siçandan qorxmadı və , əks istiqamətdə reaksiya verərək siçanı sevir,onu tutmağa çalışır və gülür.

İndi onlar növbəti mərhələyə keçməyə hazırdırlar. Albert, hər dəfə siçana toxunduqda, psixoloqlar iki dəmir çubuğu (bir çəkiclə, digəri isə polad  ilə) tıqqıltı ilə narahat səslər etməyə başlayırlar. Səsləri eşidən kiçik Albert ağlamağa başlayır. Otaq səssizləşəndə  Albert siçanla yenidən oynamağa davam edir, , yenidən siçana toxunanda psixoloqların etdiyi tıqqıltıya məruz qalır. Albert ağladığı kimi, ehtiyatlayenidən cəhd edəndə siçan toxunmaqdan qorxduğunu hiss edir, çünki o, həmişə toxunmağa çalışarkən eyni səsləri eşidir.

Image result for little albert

Bu təcrübə bir neçə gün davam edir və təkrarlanır.

Watson və Rayner, sınağı növbəti mərhələyə daşıyır , dovşan və digər tüklü obyektləri gətirir. Nəticə: Albert, xüsusilə ağ, tüklü bir obyekt görəndə qorxu hiss edir, ağlamağa başlayır və qaçmaq istəyir. İndi Albert pambıq, ağ dovşan və buna bənzər əşyalar arasında dəmir çubuqların çıxardığı səs olmadığına baxmayaraq qorxmağa başlayır.

Image result for little albert

Nəticələrdən razı olmayan psixoloqlar, nəhayət, ağ saqqallı  quş kostyumları taxaraq otağa daxil olur. Kədərlənən Albertın üzündəki tüklü obyektlərin görüldüyü qorxusu artıq tamamilə balaca körpənin yaddaşına yazılır.

Image result for little albert

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1920-ci illərdə edilən bu təcrübə ilə, elm adamları şərti qorxudan israr edirlər. Ancaq 8 aylıq bir körpənin vəziyyəti yenidən sınanmır və onlar müalicə etmədikləri üçün böyük reaksiyaya (etiraza) məruz qalırlar. Albertin zehni sağlamlığını yaxşılaşdırmağa başladıqlarına baxmayaraq, keçmişin dərin və qaranlıq izlərini necə aradan qaldıracağı məlum deyildi

 

Təcrübədən sonra Little Albert’a nə oldu haqqında çox şayiələr var.

Müəllif Tom Bartlettin sözlərinə görə, kiçik Albertın anası Arvilla Merritte, eyni xəstəxanada süd ana idi. O dövrə görə,iqtisadi vəziyyəti digər işçilərdən daha aşağıdır. Maddi imkansızlıqdan ötəri, körpənin eksperimentdə istifadə olunmasından  imtina edə bilmədi. “Kiçik Albert” kitabında deyildiyinə görə, anası kiçik Albert haqqında olan təcrübələri bilməmişdi. Təcrübələrdən xəbərdar olduqdan sonra körpəsini götürüb yoxa çıxdı.

Kiçik Albertin ölümü.

 

Amerika Psixoloji Assosiasiyasına əsasən, Douglas Merritte kiçik Albertın əsl adıdır.

Qeydlərə görə, Douglas 6 yaşda hidrosefaliyadan (beyinə su toplanması) həyatını itirdi.

Image result for little albert die

 

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