Mifologiya və folklorda arı simvolizmi

94

Arılar yay aylarında bizim bağlarımızda olduğu kimi dünya folklorunda da zəngindir və  biz onları bəşəriyyət yaranandan bəri davamlı olaraq insan sənətkarlığında izləyə bilərik. Mifologiyada arı simvolu Qədim Şərq və Egey mədəniyyətinin yayıldığı ərazilərdən tapılmışdır. Onlar bu həşəratların müqəddəs olduğuna inanırdılar.  Arılar dünyanın müxtəlif yerlərində,  məsələn, İspaniyanın Paleolit, Hindistanın Mezolit qaya sənətində və dünyanın ən qədim yazı  nümunələrində  də xatırlanırlar.

 

 

Arılar Masonluqda xeyirxahlıq, gerçək xoşbəxtlik və rifah üçün əzm və əmək xərcləməyin xatırladıcısı olan bir simvoldur. Ümumiyyətlə isə, arı bir müdriklik simvoludur, bunun əsas səbəbi isə onların  çiçək tozu toplayaraq bal hazırlaya bilmələridir. Bu özəllikləri ilə arı insanın gündəlik həyatdan əldə etdiyi təcrübələrlə müdrikliyə çatmasına bənzədilir. Bundan əlavə, arı ilahə Venera üçün müqəddəs bir heyvandır. Bu səbəbdən, o zamanlar arının milyon illər öncə Venera planetindən dünyaya gəldiyini düşünürdülər. Arıların Kraliçalar tərəfindən idarə  olunması  nəyə görə bu həşəratların müqəddəs bir dişilik simvolu olması sualının cavabıdır.  Bu sadəcə kraliçalıqla deyil, hər mənada qadınlıqla əlaqələndirilir.

 

Çiçək tozlarını yaymasına görə arı ilkin gücün simvolu kimi qəbul edilib. Eyni zamanda, arılar bir vaxtlar fransız krallarının da simvolu olub. Fransa idarəçilərinin arı işləməli cübbələr geyindiyi tarixə məlumdur. Bundan başqa, arı 3 böyük müqəddəs kitabın da mövzusuna çevrilib. Hətta “Quran”dakı surələrdən birinin adı “Arı”,  yəni “Nəhl” surəsidir. Bir çox qədim mədəniyyətlərdə, xüsusilə də, Şumer və Misirdə balın təbabətdə sehrli dərman vasitəsi kimi xəstəliklərin müalicə edilməsində işlədilməsi də məlumdur. Xora, yanıq müalicəsi və göz xəstəliklərində də tez-tez baldan istifadə olunur. Deyilirdi ki, arı sancması revmatizm və artrit xəstəliyini müalicə etmək üçün də faydalıdır.  O zamanlar bal arılarının Günəş tanrısı “Ra”nın göz yaşlarından yarandığına  inanırdılar. İndiki dövrdə də əməksevərliyin və məhəbbət qoruyuculuğunun simvolu kimi arı talismanlarından istifadə olunur.

Arılar sevgi, çalışqanlıq və yaradıcılıq simvolizmi ilə bağlıdır. Bir təsərrüfatda və ya zavodun, süd məhsullarının yaxınlığında arıların çox olması onların məhsuldarığı yaxşılaşdırması ilə əlaqələndirilir. Arılar bal hazırlayır, səs-küy yaradır, pollinasiya edirlər. İşçi arıları doğan kraliça arı ( Ana arı) isə  elə yaradıcılığın özü hesab olunur.

Vikinqlərin “mead” adlanan bal şərabının baldan hazırlanması da əsas məqamlardandır. Vikinqlərin ata-babalarının həyat tərzinin bir hissəsi olan bu içki dərin mədəni və dini əhəmiyyətə malik olmuşdur.

 

Dünyanın bir çox yerlərində insanlar hesab edirlər ki, şeirlər, mahnı və şənliklər bəşəriyyətə arıların hədiyyəsidir. İngilis adalarında əhali arasında yayılmışdır ki, arı vızıltısı və ya zümzüməsi  Milad ərəfəsinin gecəyarı çalınan xüsusi himnidir. İrland şeirlərində, yeddinci əsrə aid olan Kinq və Hermitdə  qeyd olunmuşdur ki, “arılar dünyanın kiçik musiqiçiləridir”. Həmçinin arıların çoxlu dil başa düşdüyü də hesab edilir. Qədim Misirdə arı bir neçə kral simvolundan biri olmuş və dörd min ildən çox bu simvoldan istifadə edilmişdi. Arılar Misirdə fironun hakimiyyətini təmsil edirdi.

 

Arılar həmçinin sərvət, mal-dövlət, bilik və uğur zənginliyinin də simvolu hesab olunur. Arıların hər hansı bir evin yaxınlığında öz evlərini qurması Uels mədəniyyətində çox uğurlu hesab olunurdu. İrland və ingilis mədəniyyətində hesab olunurdu ki, arıları pulla alıb-satmaq, onları incitmək olmaz. Əgər evdə arıların vızıltı və ya zümzüməsi  eşidilərdisə,bu  bərəkəti simvolizə edir və  bunun evə adətən pul şəkilində gəlməsi ilə əlaqələndirilirdi. Lakin evdə arı ölü halda tapılardısa, bu pis əlamət hesab olunur və yoxsulluğa işarə edilirdi.

Arılar uzun müddət cadular və cadugərliklə də əlaqələndirilib. Əsrlər boyunca arıların uçuşu quşların uçuşu ilə oxunub. Arıların sürətlə yayılması xəstəliyə işarə edirdi. Əgər arılar çürük bir ağacda özlərinə yuva qurardısa, həmin ağacın yaxınlığındakı ailədən bir nəfərin öləcəyinə işarə kimi qəbul olunurdu.

Aristotel və Plini kimi qədim alimlər arıların hava proqnozu verə bildiyini də hesab edirdilər. Böyük Britaniyanın bir çox yerlərində arılar “Allahın kiçik xidmətçiləri (əlaqələndiriciləri)” və ya “Allahın kiçik peyğəmbərləri” kimi tanınırlar. Və bu fikir Yunan mifologiyasında Dryad’ın Rhoecus’a sevgi məktubu göndərməsi ilə bağlıdır.  Uels folklorunda arılar  Allah tərəfindən xüsusilə sevilən, cənnətdən gələn yeganə canlı kimi qəbul edilmişdir.

Mənbələr:

1)  Bee (Mythology)-Wikipedia

2) Bumblebee Conservation Trust

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

94 ŞƏRH

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