Con Konveyin təkamül məntiqi

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Britaniyanın Liverpool şəhərində doğulan Con Konvey (John Conway) 1959-cu ildə öz bakalavr təhsilini başa vurduqdan sonra Harold Davenportun (Harold Davenport) rəhbərliyi altında öz elmi işini “Rəqəmlər nəzəriyyəsi” sahəsində götürdü. Belə məsələnin məğzini çox uzadıb bu şablonla sizi yormaq istəmirəm.

Yəqin ki, təkamül haqqında az eşitməmisiniz, ümümiyyətlə, verilən bütün “elmi” nəzəriyyələrin arxasında güclü bir məntiq dayanmalıdır. Elə elmiliyin özü də buradan gəlir. Buradan yola çıxaraq yaradılış və reallıq mövzularını daha sadə başa düşməyimiz üçün 1970-ci ildə Kembricdə gənc bir riyaziyyatçı olan Con Konvey bizə qəbul olunması çox asan bir model təklif etdi. Bu daha çox oyunu xatırlatdığı üçün buna “Həyat oyunu” (Game of life) dedi. “Həyat oyunu”nun qalibi və ya məğlubu yoxdur, əslində, oyunçular da yoxdur. Bu real bir oyun deyildir, sadəcə sizə bir kainat verilir (düşünün ki, bu kainat iki ölçülüdür) və siz bu kainatda həyat formaları (hüceyrə) yaradıb onların hansı qanunauyğunluqlara əməl edəcəyini müəyyən edirsiniz və beləcə, oyun başlayır.

Conun dünyası şahmat taxtası kimi xanalardan ibarət idi. Hər xana ölü və ya canlı ola bilər. Hər xananın səkkiz qonşusu var. Bunlar alt, üst, sağ, sol və künclərdəki qonşulardır. Baxdığımız dünyadakı zaman daimi olmasa da, addımlar halında irəliyə doğru axır. Ölü və canlı xanalarda edilən modifikasiyalar da aşağıdakı şərtlər altında canlı xanalar sistemində daha sonra olacaqları müəyyən edəcəkdir:

  • İki və ya üç canlı qonşusu olan xana canlı qalır (həyatda qalma);
  • Tam olaraq üç canlı qonşusu olan ölü bir xana canlanır (doğulma);
  • Digər bütün hallarda hüceyrələr ölür və ya ölü olaraq qalır. Canlı bir xana sıfır və ya  bir qonşusu olduğunda yalnızlıqdan, üçdən çox qonşusu olduğunda isə izdihamdan ölür.

İndi öz fəzanıza bir hüceyrə daxil edin və birini alt, üst, sağ, sol və künclərdə necə istəyirsinizsə, elə yaradın. Bu sizin dünyanızdır və yuxarıda verilmiş qanunauyğunluqlar daxilində bu xanaların generasiyasına baxın (sizin üçün buraya (https://bitstorm.org/gameoflife/) link qeyd edirəm bu oyunu online da oynaya bilərsiniz). Burada yaradacağınız hər sarı rəngli xana bir hüceyrəyə misaldır və istədiyiniz şəkildə həyat formasını yaratdıqdan sonra onun zaman keçdikcə necə mürəkkəb formalara və ya sadə formalara keçib yaşamasını, ölməsini ya da olduğu mühitə öyrəşib sinxron yaşamasını müşahidə edə bilərsiniz.

Yuxarıda göstərilmiş şəkildə qara xanalar “canlı”, içi boş xanalar isə (ağ xanalar) “ölü xanalar” adlanır. Bu şəklin mahiyyəti ondan ibarətdir ki, bu cür yaranan və ya təkamül edən həyat formaları stabil qalır (D-blok və blinker) ya da ölür (A,B,C).

Həyat oyunu dünyasını müəyyən vaxt müşahidə etsəniz, yeni ölçüdəki hüceyrələri idarə edən yeni qanunlar ortaya çıxdığını görəcəksiniz. Məsələn, bloklar heç vaxt hərəkət etməz və ya blinker-lər çarpaz hərəkət edər. Hətta hüceyrələr toqquşduqda belə ortaya çıxan fiqurlar üçün yeni qanunlar tapa bilərsiniz, halbuki, başlanğıc halda biz bu qanunları qoymamışdıq.

Mənbələr:

https://www.wired.com/2015/09/life-games-playful-genius-john-conway/

http://web.stanford.edu/~cdebs/GameOfLife/

Stephen Hawking – “Great Design”.

Redaktə etdi: Fatimə Əliyeva

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