Platonun incəsənət düşmənçiliyi

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Platon filosofun həyatdakı əsas məqsədinin nəsnələrin səthini keçərək altdaki həqiqətə nüfuz etmək olduğuna inanırdı. Bunu bir növ zehni mistisizm olaraq başa düşmək olar; çünki bu içində ruhun onsuz da var olduğu və əbədiyyən var olmağa davam edəcəyi İdealar Dünyasını zehni nöqteyi-nəzərdən qavramaq mənasına gəlir. Bu mənada belə bir qavrayışı əldə etmə prosesi, -filosofun elədiyi şey mövzusunda Sokratın (Socrates) Phaidon da oxuduğumuz sözləri ilə- bir növ ölüm sınağıdır.

Bunu əldə etmək üçün insanın özünü hissi aləmi təşkil edən keçici şeylərin içini və arxasını görməsi və özünü hissi aləmin cazibələrindən və şirin illuziyalarından təmizlənməsi lazımdır. Platonu incəsənətə düşmənçiliyə sövq edən şey bu lazimədir. Platona görə incəsənət sadəcə təmsil etmədən ibarətdir və əsas olaraq hisslərə təsir edir; və əlbəttə incəsənət nə qədər çox gözəl olarsa bu təsirin də o qədər güclü olması labüddür. Ona görə də sənət əsərləri iki dəfə aldadıcıdır; çünki aldadıcı surətlərin aldadıcı surətləridirlər. Bu dünyanın keçici şeylərini saxta bir parıltı ilə təqdim edir, onlara duyduğumuz emosional bağlılığı gücləndirirlər; beləliklə hissi aləmin aldadıcı səthinin üstündəki zaman xarici və hissi olmayan reallığa yüksəlmək olan həqiqi vəzifəmizdən bizi saxlayırlar. Buna görə də ruhumuz üçün təhlükə ərz edirlər. İdeal cəmiyyətdə bunlara izn verilməyəcəkdir. Platonun bu təlimi o dövrdən etibarən incəsənəti qadağan edən və ya nəzarət etmək istəyən insanlara əsas təşkil etmişdir.

Platona görə fərd bir birilə mübarizə içərisində olan üç ünsürdən mütəşəkkildir: Ehtiras, əql və iradə. Kontrolun iradə vasitəsilə ehtirasları idarə edən əqldə olmağı əsasdır. Buna əsaslanaraq fərdlərə biçdiyi bu dəyərdən bir toplum modeli əldə etmişdir. Platonun ideal toplumunda “köməkçilər” adını verdiyi vasitə, bir polis sinifi, bütün bir toplumun mühafizəçiləri sifətiylə hərəkət edəcək olan fəlsəfi şüurlu bir idarəçi sinifin idarəsində kütlələri nizam içində saxlayacaqdır. Belə ifadə olunanda, təsəvvür edilən nəanənin 20. əsrin kommunist toplumlarından bir fərqi yoxmuş kimi görünməkdədir. Həqiqətən də Platonun siyasi fikirlərinin əsrlər boyunca ən az 20. əsri formalaşdıran solçu və sağçı ütopik totalitar fəlsəfələr qədər geniş bir təsir yaratması danılmaz bir həqiqətdir.

 

Müəllif: Cavidan Rza

Redaktə: Turqut Ağayev

83 ŞƏRH

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