“Sokratın ölümü”

94

Afinanı idarə edən demokratik cəmiyyət tərəfindən edama məhkum edilmiş Sokratın, zəhərli badyan içməmişdən bir neçə dəqiqə əvvəlini təsvir edən bu rəsm əsəri 1786-cı ilin payızında 38 yaşlı Jacques-Louis-David tərəfindən çəkilmişdir. Bu rəsm Afinalılara qarşı öz düşüncələrini ifadə etməsi və gənclərin əxlaqını pozma ittihamları nəticəsində  badyan zəhəri içərək ölümə məhkum edilmiş yunan filosofu Sokratın ölüm səhnəsini təsvir edir.  Sokrat ölüm hökmü əvəzində sürgünü seçmək şansına sahib olsa da, o ölümü seçdi.

Sokratın ölüm yatağının ayağında oturmuş Platon bu ədalətsizliyə sakitcə şahidlik edir. Yerə qoyulmuş bir qələm və papirus kağızı da nəzərimizdən qaçmır.

Sokratın öldüyü zaman Platonun 29 yaşı olmasına baxmayaraq, David Platonu rəsmdə ağ saçlı yaşlı bir adam kimi təsvir edib.

Və ölümə əl sallayan bir qadın…

Sokratın arvadı Xanthippe gözətçilərin bələdçiliyi altında həbsxana hücrəsindən bayıra çıxarılır.

Bundan əvvəl Sokratı həbsxanadan qaçmağa razı salmağa çalışan ən yaxın dostu Kriton narahatçılıq içində dostunun yanında oturaraq onun dizini qucaqlayıb.

Sokratın qolları güclü, qaməti düz, üzündə isə nə qorxu nə də peşmançılıq hissi var.

Tabloda qırmızı geyimli tələbəsi zəhər dolu camı məyusluqla özündən əmin olan Sokrata uzadır, Sokratın göyü işarə edən əli isə onun tanrıya  duyduğu dərin hörmət və ölümə qarşı qorxusuz duruşunu göstərir.

 

Davidin Sokratın öldüyü gün haqqında təxəyyülündə canlandırdığı səhnədə Sokrat zəhəri içmişdi, amma şair dostu Andre Chenier bu fikri bəyənməmişdi.

Ona demişdi ki, Sokratı itaətkar, amma son sözlərini deyərək içindən gələn səslərə sədaqət göstərən bir adam olaraq təsvir etsin.

Alain de Botton bu rəsmdən çox təsirlənmişdi, çünki təsvir edilən davranış ilə onunki arasında ziddiyət var idi.

Hər kəs tərəfindən sevilmək istədiyi üçün doğrunu deməkdənsə, insanların eşitmək istədiklərini dediyini düşündüyünə görə…

Əksəriyyətin qəbul etdiyi fikri sorğulamadığı üçün..

Səlahiyyətli şəxslərin razılığını almağa çalışdığı üçün..

Halbuki Sokrat onun düşündüyü kimi deyildi. Cəmiyyət tərəfindən qəbul olunmadıqda və ya cinayətkar hesab olunduğu zaman o öz düşüncələrini dəyişdirməz və güvəni qırılmazdı.

Bu rəsm ona cəmiyyətin qəbul etdiyi davranış nümunələrinə və fikirlərə tərəf tənbəlcə yönəlməkdənsə, başqa şeylər də edə biləcəyini düşündürür.

Sokrat demişdi: “Nəfəs aldığım və ağlım başımda olduğu müddətcə fəlsəfəylə məşğul olmaqdan, məsləhət verməkdən və doğrunu danışmaqdan imtina etməyəcəyəm”

Bu tablo hələ də Nyu-Yorkdakı Metropoliten muzeyində saxlanılmaqdadır.

         

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Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

94 ŞƏRH

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