Kainatın mənşəyi və təkamülü – Böyük partlayış

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Kainatın yaranması, quruluşu, inkişafı və təkamülünün tədqiqi problemi təkcə astronomiyanın deyil, bütün təbiət elmlərinin, müxtəlif fəlsəfi və dini baxışların da əsas problemidir. Problemin həllində ilk addım Kainatın başlanğıc halına yaxın mərhələdə onun kimyəvi tərkibi və oradakı fiziki şəraiti müəyyən etməkdir. 1946–1948-ci illərdə Q.A.Qamov (ABŞ) Kainatın mənşəyi və təkamülünün nəzəri modelini verir. “Qaynar Kainat” adlanan bu modelə əsasən, Kainat Böyük partlayış nəticəsində yaranmışdır (Şəkil 1).

Kainatın yaranması fiziki vakuumda gedən proseslərlə bağlı olmuşdur. Son nəzəri hesablamalar göstərir ki, Kainatın yaşı ≈13,7 milyard il, ilk sıxlığı ≈1096 və ölçüsü 10-15 sm olmuşdur. Belə ekstremal fiziki şəraitdə dörd fundamental qarışılıqlı təsiri (qravitasiya, güclü, zəif və elektromaqnit) vahid Superqüvvə özündə “birləşdirmişdir”. Superqüvvə – supersimmetriya ideyasına söykənir. SüperqüvvəKainatdakı nizamlılığı, tarazlığı və təbii qanunauyğunluğu (supersimmetriyanı) saxlayan vasitədir. “Qaynar Kainat” modelinə əsasən Kainatın təkamülünün xarakterik mərhələləri bunlardır: İlk mərhələ – temperaturun maksimum (1032 K) və zamanın ən kiçik anı (10-43 san) olan mərhələsidir. Bu, Böyük partlayış anıdır. Ən kiçik zaman intervalında (10-43 – 10-35 san intervalı) materiya şüalanma və ifrat qaynar plazma şəklində (kvark – qlüon plazması) meydana gəlir. Bu zaman Qravitasiya qarşılıqlı təsir superqüvvədən “ayrılır”.  İkinci mərhələ – temperaturun 1028÷1012 qədər azaldığı (başlanğıc andan 10-35÷10-4 san müddətində) mərhələdir. Kainatın sonrakı genişlənmə və soyuması nəticəsində kvarklar birləşərək proton və neytronları əmələ gətirir. Şüalanma zərrəciklərinin qarşılıqlı təsirindən isə elektron, pozitron və mezonlar yaranır. Üçüncü mərhələ – Kainatın temperaturunun 109 K olduğu mərhələdir (Böyük partlayışdan 300 saniyə sonra). Bu zaman güclü qarşılıqlı təsir qüvvəsi superqüvvədən “ayrılaraq” proton və neytronlardan ibarət, əlaqəli fiziki sistemlərin ilk nüvələrini (hidrogen və helium nüvələri) yaradır. Maddənin belə halı plazma şəklində bir milyon il mövcud olur. Dördüncü mərhələ – Kainatın temperaturunun 4000 K-ya qədər soyuduğu mərhələdir. Bu mərhələdə əvvəlcə zəif, sonra isə elektromaqnit qarşılıqlı təsir qüvvələri bir-birindən “ayrılır”. Elektromaqnit qarşılıqlı təsir qüvvələri elektronun nüvə ilə əlaqəli sistemlərini – yüngül hidrogen və helium atomlarını yaradır. Sonrakı mərhələlərdə, Kainatın təkamülü maddə qatılaşması, şüalanma enerjisinin ayrılması və irimiqyaslı makrosistemlərin yaranması (kvazarlar və qalaktikalar) ilə davam edir. Şəkildə Kainatın təkamül sxemi göstərilmişdir.

 Şəkildən göründüyü kimi, Kainatın həyatında baş verən hadisələr özünəməxsus zaman – zaman və kütlə – enerji mümasibətlərilə səciyyələnir.

 

 

Ədəbiyyat:

Murquzov Mirzəli, Mehdiyev Allahverdi, Abdurazaqov Rasim, Ətayi Ədalət, Zeynalov Rəhim – Astronomiya.

 

 

 

 

 

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